The uterine microbiome consists of commensal, nonpathogenic bacteria, viruses, yeasts/fungi, and the environment in which they live in a healthy uterus, amniotic fluid, and endometrium. The term “uterine microbiome” refers to the community of microorganisms found in the uterus. The uterus and its tissues are not sterile, as was recently confirmed. The uterus was once thought to be a sterile environment, but new research suggests that, like other parts of the body, it may harbor a diverse microbial community.
The study of the uterine microbiome is still in its early stages, and debate and research are ongoing to better understand its composition, function, and implications for women’s health. The vaginal microbiome has received more attention, and it is now known to play an important role in reproductive health, influencing fertility, pregnancy outcomes, and infection susceptibility.
Bacterial detection in low numbers is now possible thanks to improved 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques. Studies of microbiota present in the uterus are expected to increase as a result of this procedure, which allows the detection of bacteria that cannot be cultured outside the body.
Some research has suggested that the uterine microbiome differs from the vaginal microbiome and that changes in uterine microbial composition may be linked to certain reproductive conditions such as infertility, endometriosis, and preterm birth. However, research in this area is still in its early stages, and the role of the uterine microbiome in various health conditions is not fully understood.
The study of the uterine microbiome is difficult due to the difficulty in obtaining samples free of vaginal microbiota contamination. Researchers are analyzing the microbial communities present in the uterus using advanced molecular techniques such as next-generation sequencing.
The potential role of the uterine microbiome in reproductive health, fertility, and pregnancy outcomes is being researched. Some studies have suggested links between changes in the uterine microbiome and conditions like endometritis and infertility, but more research is needed to establish causation and understand the underlying mechanisms.