Human Resource Management

HRM in Employee Selection Process in Garments

HRM in Employee Selection Process in Garments

After liberation when country’s traditional items of export could not yield expected result, in late 70s the government and a section of entrepreneurs – young, educated and dynamic, began to emphasize on development of non-traditional items of export. By the year 1983, Ready-Made Garments (RMG) emerged to be non-traditional export oriented sector most promising in the socioeconomic context of the country. By that time, those entrepreneurs felt a necessity of sect oral trade body, non-government in nature, free from traditional bureaucracy, to help the RMG sector and to boost up the foreign exchange earning of the country urgently needed at that time. Responding to that necessity, 19 (Nineteen) RMG manufactures and exports joined together and by their untiring efforts got Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters  Association (BGMEA) incorporated on February 20, 1983, Today 2400 small and medium scale privately owned garment factories, registered with BGMEA, spread in cluster over the EPZ and urban areas of Dhaka, Chittagong and Khulna, are manufacturing ready-made garments of varied specifications as per size and design stipulated by the overseas buyers. Starting with a few items, the entrepreneurs in the RMG sector have widely diversified the product base ranging from ordinary shirt, T-shirt, trousers, shorts, pajama, ladies’ wear and children’s wear to sophisticated high value items like quality suits, branded jeans items, jackets-both cotton and leather, sweaters, embroidered wear etc.

Besides accounting for 66% of Bangladesh’s total export earnings in 1995, this sector is employing about 1.2 million people of whom 90% are woman. Ancillary industries producing carton, polybasic, woven labels, buttons, sewing thread, strapping band, gum tape etc. have emerged in large number with the growth of the sector. The RMG industry has helped the growth of the sectors like banking, insurance, shipping, hotel, tourism, road, transportation and railway container services etc. The sector in which the RMG has helped created the maximum Prospect in the country in the textile sector-supply source of mother raw-material of RMG sector.

Woven Garments is a growing industry in Bangladesh & similarly to woven apparel designs, gives a challenging & responsible career where the complex nature of the global fashion & Textile industries must be realize. The Woven Industry will meet the global challenge through their creative ability & sound background of commercial industrial & operational environments in which professional practice takes place with Bangladesh becoming one of the leading world suppliers of Woven Garments.

The exponential growth of Bangladesh Garments Manufacturing sector mow necessities the country to become Vertical & further growth in backward linkage in the Woven & Knit sector is essential to complete with China & India. So the impact of management system is absolutely crucial top sustained growth & future expansion of the garment industry through a well planning.


Effective HRM system for today’s & future in Garments Industry in Bangladesh. There is a particular reason behind any work which is called “The objectives “The objectives behind preparing this report are to achieve proper theoretical and practical knowledge.

The main objectives of the studies are as follows:

  • To know about various Human Resource functions as Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Compensation Management etc of Section Seven Limited.
  • To know about the company’s proper rules & regulations.
  • To know about employees facilities & job satisfaction of the company.
  • To identify SWOT of HRM in To Section Seven Limited.
  • Find out various problems related to the HR-Department And to suggest the way to overcome the problems.


  •  I collect both secondary and primary data.
  •  I use both close and open system to collect data.

This study is a simple research work. So no statistical tools and technique are used here. This study is descriptive report. Here only made a narrative description of the collected information from the Seven

Seven Limited. As a part of the internship program I went to the Section Seven Limited, and took practical training about human resource management of Section Seven Limited and on the basis of this training and collected information this report has been prepared. Simply two types of data are found.

  • Primary data
  • Secondary data

Primary data sources

Primary data can be defined as the data collected for the first time by the investigator. In this report, I collected the primary data by interviewing different executives of Section seven Limited.

Corporation limited.

Others Primary Sources of Information:

  • Data collected through various opinion of officers & Clients of the ACL.
  • Face to face conversation with officials of HR department.
  • Data collected through observation of the company’s activity.

Secondary data sources

I collected most of my secondary data from annual report, thesis report journal etc. I have used secondary data only in the cases where it was not possible for me to use primary data.

Others Secondary Sources of Information

  • Relevant of section seven limited paper and published documents.
  • Various books.
  • Internet.


  • Analysis the accurate information from both primary & secondary resource.
  • Compare & contrast between different management system in current use in the clothing Industry.
  • To follow the sequence of design on this management system through in creative innovation.
  • Evaluate & critical compare the use of system in different contexts.

Background of the study                                               

This report is prepared to fulfill the core requirement of course “Internship” to complete three year designed program BSS (Bachelor of social science). I have prepared this report for our honorable teacher Mohammad  Salauddin Assistant Professor of SoutheastUniversity. The primary goal of the internship is to provide a smooth transition from the student life to the corporate world. I have prepared this high valued report on a company where I served as an intern at the beginning and lasted on as a permanent employee. IN my tenure of in Section Seven Limited, as a part of a large company I had easy access to their strategic planning and overall operational activities.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of preparing   report is to apply HRM knowledge in the field of real business world.

All these days we have learnt only few basics on how business works but the opportunity of being an intern in a famous company enabled me to get the touch of real.


When I am preparing the report that time I faced some limitations because I could not get the accurate information in such way. When to collect information for our survey that time I also faced some problem.

Some of them were not interested to give information willingly. When I made interview with my director and manager and also executive then they did not provide their accurate internal Information. So that was difficult to prepare report perfectly. On the other hand I didn’t get enough time to prepare this report and analyzing this report. Financial Budget is also an obstacle to prepare this report.

Historical Background

Section Seven Limited: Dhaka (SSL) is situated on the commercial Area of Dhaka City. Section Seven Limited was established in the year of 2005. It is a sister concern private limited company of Polarvista International Co., Ltd., in Bangladesh. Within a very short time, it becomes very popular to workers & staffs for its environment, management & operations. Believes in quality and time and highly emphasizes in maintaining a concerted harmony in its environment. I have seen a democratic environment of Section seven Limited. I have a general idea about the management practices of SSL while visiting the factory.

There is a good relation between workers & management in Section Seven Limited. There is no discrimination in any aspect and it always follows the Management instruction.

SSL are extremely conscious of their standard and quality would like to develop pollution free modern technology in most convenient area.

Bangladesh is a small country and it has big population as a result need of accommodation is rising spontaneously. Section Seven Limited would like to develop economic position not horizontally but vertically. Section Seven Limited also have future vision for the garments industries. It’s a real big opportunity for Real garments industries to move on and create lot of most comfortable apartments all over the country with dedication and commitments. SSL believe to serve and elevate this sector; So Section Seven Limited needs to live with their motto-In Trust with the Best. But through my study, I have found some problems in SSL, which is contract by the personnel’s of HR-Department & other departments. According to that information, I made to followed to prepared SWOT analysis, findings & recommendation at the end of the report is designed based on my practiced. I have included some important information, which is very helpful for the organization or individual according to my study.


  • Serve our customers by producing high-quality garments and deliver first class service that will add to their success.
  • Carve out a niche in the global market.
  • Brand Bangladesh as a quality producer.
  • Promote an eco-friendly green environment.
  • Support the less privileged people.

Our Mission

  • To realise our vision, we are continuously updating the fashion trends through:
  1. Research & Development
  2. Continuous investment in the latest technology
  3. Upgrading of our Human Resources.
  • To succeed in our vision we work in close partnership with international and local experts.
  • To manufacture a full range of high-quality woven & knit garments.
  • To continuously seek to increase the profit for all stakeholders.

Organization structure and documentation system

Our country major export is garment product. Now a day we are losing buyer due to quality and faze out of Quota system. So manufacturer are losing interest in woven and Concentrate in to shirt

Corporate Office

Section Seven Limited

Road No. 95

House 14/C, Floor 5th

Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212

Factory location:

Section Seven Limited

Plot: 21-26(part) Road: 4

Sector: 3, CEPZ, Chittagong


Organizational Structure of Section Seven Limited

organizational structure

Law Practice:

Local & National Labor Court – 1965

Specially BEPZA (Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority)

ILO Convention.

Quality Control System:

Highly Skilled Quality Control Team

Ensuring 2.5 Standard Quality Level

BGMEA Registration No: 4298

Establish Date         : 2005

This is a private Ltd. Company. So there are some directors and a chairman accompanied by a managing director.

stitches-per-inch (s.p.i.)

This widely used criterion is usually misunderstood. Although it is true that a poorly made shirt will usually have a much lower stitch count, it does not follow that a well-made will have 24 – 26 or more stitches-per-inch (s.p.i.) throughout the shirt. Firstly, you need to understand why. The speed of a sewing machine is measured, not in linear dimension, but in stitches-per-minute. The fewer stitches in an inch, the faster the machine sews that inch. That is the simple reason cheaper shirts have fewer stitches – the lower stitch count means the sewing goes more quickly.

Production range of factory:

Item Product:  Woven Garments of all Ages – Tops & Bottoms Especially Classic, Casual & Young Fashion, Shirt.


            Capacity                               :        120 pcs/day

            Engaged People                   :        100

            (Fully Equipped Sample Room)

Specialized Section



            Research & Development Section (R&D)

            Pattern & Designing

            CAD Section

            Washing with ETP facility

Quality Control System

            Highly Skilled Quality Control Team

            Ensuring 2.5 Standard Quality Level

 Minimum Order                          :                             1000 Dozen


Production Lead Time                :                             75-120 Days

Production steps from sample section to packing section.

Following machines are available:

  • Sewing machine
  • Washing machine
  • Hydro Extractor
  • Dryer
  • Boiler
  • Steam Iron
  • Over look machine
  • interlining
  • Plain sewing machine. ( For label attaching )

Production Processing:

Cutting Section machine:

–  After fabric inspection cut the fabric as per paten.

a. Sewing Section:

After cutting Each and every part sewing here.

b. Finishing Section:

After sewing finishing and packing Back part and front linking here.

c.   Inspection Section:

Each and every parts & Design checked

          Out put: accepted parts only.

d.   Training Section:

i)  Additional and excess lengths are cut.

ii)  For beautification.

e.   Boiler Section:

To general steam.

The capacity     5 ton

            1 ton

            2 ton

Supply of machine:

  • Washing machine.
  • Dryer machine.
  • Iron machine.
  • Over lock and level sewing machine.
  • Plain machine

Productivity of the factory:

Monthly Capacity:  9, 00,000 pcs.  To 10, 00,000 pcs.

It depends on design. If it is complicated design then the production down. Usually on worked makes 8 to 10 pcs of garment in a normal working hours in one day ( normal design ).  Shirt maker Ltd follows optimum mix. Optimum Mix is the product mix at which the profit of the enterprise is the stage at which; the enterprise is in a position that no adjustment in its product would enhance its profits. Shirt maker Ltd. Always tries to achieve the product mix which may produce maximum possible profits. For this the Shirt maker Ltd. Makes necessary change as in its product lines are dropper mix of the enterprise results in enhancing the profits if the company, sometimes such adjustment result in the fall in its profit.

Procedure of on time shipment:

To get the final product to shop the garment.  Shirt maker Ltd. Have some extra effect such as:

  • No delay for sample approval.
  • Calculate the production per day by doing test production.
  • Good quality maintenance.
  • Good banking procedure.
  • Time to time correspondence with buyer etc.

Compliance issues of the factory:

I make a compliance audit check list to check out the compliance issues. After getting the information I think Shirt maker Ltd. Failed in compliance. The headings of my check list are as follows:

  • Child labor.
  • Forced labor.
  • Health and Safety.
  •  Freedom of Association.
  • Discrimination.
  • Disciplinary practices.
  • Working hours.
  • Remuneration.
  • Environment.
  • Custom compliance.
  • Drug interdiction.
  • Management system.
  • Control of suppliers/ Sub contractors and sub suppliers.
  • Addressing concern and taking corrective action.
  • Outside communication.
  • Access for verification.

Human resource planning:

Human resource planning is the process of an organization ensures that it has the right number & kind of people, at the right places, at the time, capable of effectively & efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives.

Human resource management is concerned with people activities, getting & keeping people which are the crucial part of H.R.M.


Substituting existing operation The garment industry should be encouraged to rise  its managerial & technological standards. Consultants & CAD companies employed have effective services offer. But as conventionally employed their resources would be inadequate & means of more rapidly tilling available knowledge need to be developed. This approach should be adopted on a sufficient scale to rise the productivity of the industry should be adopted on a sufficient scale to rise the productivity of the industry during the initial period of accelerated development work towards improved sewing systems.

The garments industry should be encouraged to install available machinery, where it can be shown to be economic, in order to strengthen industry confidence in it to maintain the interest of potential manufactures in this area.

Co-operative investigating by garment production & management for manufacturing should be encouraged into the optimum mode of employment of the machinery type under development, with a view to defining production systems based on these machines rather that their potential for substituting existing operations.

Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. HRM can also be performed by line managers. Job analysis is primary tool in personnel management. In this method, a personnel manager tries to gather, synthesize and implement the information available regarding the workforce in the concern. A personnel manager has to undertake job analysis so as to put right man on right job.

HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

HRM is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives.

There are two outcomes of job analysis:

  1. Job description
  2. Job specification

The information collected under job analysis is:

  • Nature of jobs required in a concern.
  • Nature/ size of organizational structure.
  • Type of people required to fit that structure.
  • The relationship of the job with other jobs in the concern.
  • Kind of qualifications and academic background required for jobs.
  • Provision of physical condition to support the activities of the concern. For example- separate cabins for managers, special cabins for the supervisors, healthy condition for workers, and adequate store room for store keeper.
Advantages of Job Analysis
  • Job analysis helps the personnel manager at the time of recruitment and selection of right man on right job.
  • It helps him to understand extent and scope of training required in that field.
  • It helps in evaluating the job in which the worth of the job has to be evaluated.
  • In those instances where smooth work force is required in concern.
  • When he has to avoid overlapping of authority- responsibility relationship so that distortion in chain of command doesn’t exist.
  • It also helps to chalk out the compensation plans for the employees.
  • It also helps the personnel manager to undertake performance appraisal effectively in a concern.

A personnel manger carries analysis in two ways:

  1. Job description
  2. Job specification

Job Description

A job description is a list that a person might use for general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. It may often include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications or skills needed by the person in the job, or a salary range. Job descriptions are usually narrative, but some may instead comprise a simple list of competencies; for instance, strategic human resource planning methodologies may be used to develop a competency architecture for an organization, from which job descriptions are built as a shortlist of competencies.

Job Description is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive in nature and it constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as:

  • Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern.
  • The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job.
  • The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
  • Necessary qualifications that is required for job.
  • Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
  • The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job.
Advantages of Job Description
  • It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances.
  • It helps in recruitment and selection procedures.
  • It assists in manpower planning.
  • It is also helpful in performance appraisal.
  • It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job.
  • It also helps in chalking out training and development programmers.

Job Specification

Also known as employee specifications, a job specification is a written statement of educational qualifications, specific qualities, level of experience, physical, emotional, technical and communication skills required to perform a job, responsibilities involved in a job and other unusual sensory demands. It also includes general health, mental health, intelligence, aptitude, memory, judgment, leadership skills, emotional ability, adaptability, flexibility, values and ethics, manners and creativity, etc.

job analysis

Job Specification is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are:

  • Job title and designation
  • Educational qualifications for that title
  • Physical and other related attributes
  • Physique and mental health
  • Special attributes and abilities
  • Maturity and dependability
  • Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
Advantages of Job Specification
  • It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure.
  • It helps in giving due justification to each job.
  • It also helps in designing training and development programmers.
  • It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees.
  • It helps in job evaluation.
  • It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and
  •  giving extra benefits to the employees

Employee Testing and Selection Learning Objectives

After you have read this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Describe why selection and placement must consider both person-job and Person-organization fit.
  • Diagram the sequence of a typical selection process.
  • Identify three types of selection tests and legal concerns about their uses.
  • Discuss several types of Selection interviews and some key considerations when conducting these interviews.
  • Explain how legal concerns affect background investigations of applicants and use of medical examinations in the selection process.

The Selection Process

The Selection Process typically consists of eight steps:

  • initial screening interview
  • completion of the application form
  • emulation tests
  • comprehensive interview
  • background investigation
  • conditional job offer
  • medical/physical exam
  • permanent job offer

The screening of inquiries

Based on job description and job specification, some of the respondents/applicants can be eliminated.

The provision of screening interviews

The screening interviews are an excellent opportunity for management to describe the job in enough detail so the candidates can consider whether they are really serious about making application.

The Comprehensive Approach

  • Comprehensive selection approach puts applicants through all the steps in the selection process before making a decision.
  • Assesses both strengths and weaknesses and is considered more realistic.

Now it’s Up to the Candidate

  • The candidate now has to decide whether this is the job for him or her.
  • Applicants who are not hired this time will still form an impression about
  • The company.
  • Management should assure the selection process leaves them with a
  • Favorable impression of the company.
  • Suggestions for making your interviews as an applicant successful are:
  • Do some homework on the Company.
  • Get a good night’s rest the night before.
  • Dress appropriately.
  • Arrive for the interview a few minutes early.
  • Use a firm handshake.
  • Maintain good eye contact.
  • Take the opportunity to have practice interviews.
  • Thank the interviewer at the end of the interview and follow up with a
  • thank you note.

Nature of Human Resource Management

The emergence of human resource management can be attributed to the writings of the human religionists who attached great significance to the human factor. Lawrence Apply remarked, ―Management is personnel administration‖. This view is partially true as management is concerned with the efficient and effective use of both human as well as non-human resources. Thus human resource management is only a part of the management process. At the same time, it must be recognized that human resource management is inherent in the process of management. This function is performed by all the managers. A manager to get the best of his people, must undertake the basic responsibility of selecting people who will work under him and to help develop, motivate and guide them. However, he can take the help of the specialized services of the personnel department in discharging this responsibility. The nature of the human resource management has been highlighted in its following features :

 I. Inherent Part of Management : Human resource management is inherent in the process of management. This function is performed by all the managers throughout the organization rather that by the personnel department only. If a manager is to get the best of his people, he must undertake the basic responsibility of selecting people who will work under him.

II. Pervasive Function : Human Resource Management is a pervasive vetoing of management. It is performed by all managers at various levels in the organization. It is not a responsibility that a manager can leave completely to someone else. However. He

may secure advice and help in managing from experts who have special competence in personnel management and industrial relations,

Objective of Human Resource Management

According to Scott, Clothier and Spiegel, ―The objectives of Human Resource Management, in an organization, is to obtain maximum individual development, desirable working relationships between employers and employees and employers and employees, and to affect the molding of human resources as contrasted with physical resources‖. The basic objective of human resource management is to contribute to the realization of the organizational goals. However, the specific objectives of human resource management are as follows:

To ensure effective utilization of human resources, all other organizational resources will be efficiently utilized by the human resources.

  • To establish and maintain an adequate organizational structure of relationship among all the members of an organization by dividing of organization tasks into functions, positions and jobs, and by defining clearly the responsibility, accountability, authority for each job and its relation with other jobs in the organization.
  • To generate maximum development of human resources within the organization by offering opportunities for advancement to employees through training and education.
  • To ensure respect for human beings by providing various services and welfare facilities to the personnel.
  • To ensure reconciliation of individual/group goals with those of the organization in such a manner that the personnel feel a sense of commitment and loyalty towards it.
  • To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals by offering various monetary and non-monetary rewards. In order to achieve the above objectives, human resource management undertakes the following activities : (i) Human Resource Planning, i.e., determining the number and kinds of personnel required to fill various positions in the organization. (ii) Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel, i.e., employment function. (iii) Training and development of employees for their efficient performance and growth. (iv) Appraisal of performance of employees and taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another. (v) Motivation of workforce by providing financial incentives and avenues of promotion. (vi) Remuneration of employees. The employees must be given sufficient wages and fringe benefits to achieve higher standard of living and to motivate them to show higher productivity. (vii) Social security and welfare of employees.

Function of Human Resource Management

The main functions of human resource management are classified into two categories:

(a) Managerial Functions and

(b) Operative Functions

Managerial Functions following are the managerial functions of Human Resources Management.

Legacy of HRM :

The legacy of HRM needs to be analyzed from two different perspectives to get a better insight into its nature. These are 1. the Western context 2. the Indian context.

  1. Western Context: The origin of HRM, as is known today, date back to ancient times. One fined a reference of HR policy as early as 400 B.C., when the Chaldeans had a sound incentive wage plan. All that has changed over the years is the status of the employees, their roles and relationship-inter personal and inter-group. The status of labor prior to industrial revolution was extremely low and the relationships were characterized by slavery, seldom and guild system. The slaves performed manual tasks to agricultural, military and clerical responsibilities. The efficiency levels were low due to over-dependence on negative incentives and negligence of positive incentives.

Final Recruitment:

                Personnel File:

  • Job Application/ Bio Data
  • Appointment Letter
  • Job Contract
  • Increment Sheet
  • Leave Record
  • Age Certificate
  • Performance Sheet
  • Identification Card
  • Photograph Etc.

H. R. M. Is the process dealing with four functions?

  • Acquisitions function.
  • Development function.
  • Motivation function.
  • Maintain function.

Function of H. R. M. in woven Garments Industry:

a)  Quality of work life.

  • Job rotation.
  • Autonomy.
  • Counseling.
  • Recognition.
  • Belongingness.
  • Progress & Development.
  • External award.

b)  Productivity:

  • Capital investment.
  • Innovation.
  • Learning.

c)  Readiness for changes

H. R Model

hr model

Human Resource Planning:

Right number of people what are required

The entire right place in the right position

Right capacity & right personality is important

Right time

Right Kind of job

      a)  Job analysis

Job analysis is a systematic exploration the activities surrounding a job. It defies the jobs.

  • Duties.
  • Responsibilities.
  • Accountabilities.

     b)  Job Analysis Consistence the three parts

  • Job description.
  • Job specification.
  • Job evaluation.

c)  The job analysis information hierarchy involves an eight- step Process.

  • Elements.
  • Tasks.
  • Duties.
  • Position.
  • Jobs.
  • Job families
  • Occupation.
  • Careers.

d)  Six general techniques exit for obtaining job information.

  • Observation method.
  • Individual Interview method
  • Group Interview method
  • Technical conference method diary method.

e) Two special job analysis process identified are-

  • The department of Labor’s Functional job Analysis.
  • Purdue University Position Analysis Questionnaire.

f)   Assess where we are going?

g)  Future demands.

  • Increase
  • Decrease

Popular sources of recruiting employee included :

  • Internal Search.
  • Advertisement.
  • Employee referrals./ recommendation.
  • Employment agencies.
  • Temporary rental services.
  • Schools, Colleges & Universities.
  • Professional Organization.
  • Casual or unsolicited applications
  • External search..

Training & Development :

  •  Initial screening interview.
  •  Completion of the application form.
  • Employment test.
  • Comprehensive interview.
  • Background investigation.
  • Physical examination.
  • Final employment decision.

The methods of

             A.  Orientation.

             B.   Socialization.

Objective: –

  • Formalize with goal if the organization.
  • Formalize with the roles he should pay.
  • Formalize with norms & rules.
  • Formalize with the value of an organization.

It is contrast to employee to training, it is more related to future development, It focuses

More on employee personal growth.

Management Development: 

a. Methods if job development techniques include

  • Coaching
  • Understudy assignment.
  • Job rotation
  • Committee assignment.

b. Off-the job management development techniques include

c. Sensitivity training.

Transactional analysis.

Lecture courses.

Simulation exercise.

d. Critical to any training activity is proper effectiveness evaluation.

Career Development :

  • Sequence of job position hold by a person in course of life time.
  • Sequence of job position can be change.
  • Training career path of the employee.

Individual career development is a three – step self assessment process.

  1. Identifying & organization skills, interest, work – related needs &  values
  2. Converting these inventories into general career fields & specific job goals.
  3. Testing these possibilities against the realities if the of organization or  the job market.

Career opportunities appear to be good for the post—baby boom group:

  1. There is a verify of suggestion that one can follow to get ahead.
  2. Mobility seems to be issues.
  3. Twelve careers have been identified as being promising in the next decade.


Motivation is the willingness to do something, conditioned by this action ability to satisfy some need.

  1.  Mallows Hierarchy of needs theory said there are five needs. These needs are in ascending order, basic needs, social needs; esteem needs, self – actualization.
  2.   McGregor proposed two alternatives sets of assumptions that managers hold about human motivation, one basically negative, the leveled theory X & the other basically position he leveled theory Y. Y assumption are more than theory X & that employee motivation would be maximized by giving workers greater job involvement & autonomy.

Expectancy theory –

  • What outcomes what of want?
  • How important this outcome?
  • What behavior is want to aware outcome?
  • How does employee access their success?

The most accurate model for explaining motivation is expectancy theory. This theory states that an individual desire to product at any given time depends on his or her particular goals & perception of the relative worth of performance as a path to the attainment of these goals.

The four type of personalities are; dominant, influencing, steady & careful.

Job design & Work scheduling

Related to job design. How your job design. The manager in which job tasks are designed & work is scheduled can influence the motivation level of employees.

The job enrichment allows workers to assume increased responsibility for planning & self evaluation of their work.

  • Can act to motivate workers by diversifying their activities & offsetting the occurrence of boredom.
  • The shorter work week.
  • Flex – Time increases motivation
  • Home woke
  • Work sharing.

performance Appraisals:

Performance appraisals have many uses, such as allocating rewards, identifying areas where development efforts are need, & identifying criteria against which selection & deflection programs are validated.

Performance is defined in terms of effectiveness, efficiency & personal data, such of measures of accidents, turnover, absences, and tardiness.

The appraisal process consists of six steps

  • Establish performance standards.
      • Communication expectation to employee.
      • Measure actual performance.
      • Compare actual performance with standards.
      • Discuss the appraisal with the employee.
      • If necessary, initiate corrective action.

      Employee can be against.

      • Absolute standards.
      • Relative standards.
      • Objectives.

      Appraisal can be distorted by

      • Leniency error.
      • Hallo error.
      • Similarity.
      • Central tendency.
      • Forcing information to – match performance criteria.
      • Low appraisal motivations

      Benefits & Services:

      Benefits & services are a major HRM exercise expense, adding APPROXIMATELY 40 Percent to the direct wage bill. Industry required by law to provide Social Security insurance unemployment compensation & state disability plans.

      Additional benefits that employee often include.

      • Pay for rest periods.
      • Pay for holiday.
      • Pay for vacation.
      • Pay for sick leaves.
      • Pay for leaves of absences.
      • Pension program.
      • Capital accumulation programs.
      • Accident insurances
      • Life insurances.
      • Health insurances.

      Other service many employee provide include –

      • Social recreational events.
      • Counseling.
      • Cultural activity.
      • Credit unions.
      • Housing.
      • Discounts on purchases.
      • Tuition refunds for educational courses.

      Discipline is a condition in the organization when employee conducts themselves in according with the organization rules & standards of acceptance behavior.

      The most frequent discipline problems can be classified as related to –

      •    Attendance
      •    On-the job behavior.
      •     Dishonesty.
      •      Outside activities.

      Wherever discipline is imposed & the serenity of the action chosen should reflect the following Contingency factory –

      • Seriousness of the problem.
      • Duration of the problem.
      • Frequency & nature of the problem.
      •  Employee work history.
      • Extenuating circumferences.
      • Degree of socialization.
      • History of the organization discipline practices.
      • Implementation of other employees.
      • Management backi

      General guide lines in administration discipline include –

      1. Making disciplinary action corrective.
      2. Making disciplinary action progressive.

      Following the hot stove rule-discipline should be immediate provide\ de ample warning, be Consistent & impersonal.

      Disciplinary action available to the manager include-

      • Oral warning.
      • Written warning.
      •  Suspense.
      • Demotion.
      •  Pay cut.
      • Dismissal.

      Unionized employee creates special discipline problems because the quit- legal relationship developing out of the collective bargaining act to reduce management discretion in taking disciplinary action.

      Work place environment:

      The rational of maintaining of a healthy workplace is an integral part if the management of people & central to the universal principles that drive quality & productivity & competitiveness. Successful organizations already realize that managing healthy workplace is an important management function.


      • Communication: – Promote fair & constructive relationships among a management & employee.
      • Welfare: – Focus on employee needs & well – being.
      • Dressing Concern: – Prevent of remove problems that can threaten the harmony of workplace environment.
      • Recognition: – Demonstrate through examples that employees are the single most important resources & give them legitimate honor & respect.
      • Career Development: – Initiative HRD & skill development initiatives as required.

      Organizations Building Better Environment –

      Ergonomics is a fancy word for the science of arranging & adjusting the work environment to fair the employer’s body. We know that causes of poor productivity, poor quality & accidents are due to human error. Equipment objects & environmental characteristics influence human behavior. Optimal performance is obtained when products, equipped, workstations & work methods are designed while keeping a man capabilities & limitations in consideration. Close harmony between equipment & people is the key success area for building a healthy.

      HEALTH & SAFTY –

      1.  Vitalization: – The owner of the factory has to ensure

      a.   Adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air &

      b.   Such temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable condition  of

            Comfort & prevent injury to health.

      2. Lighting: The management of factory his to arrange sufficient light in each  part of the factory promises where the workers are required to work or free movement of the worker.

      Ref: Sec. 18 of the factories Act – 1965.                                                              

      3. Drinking water:

      In each factory there shall an arrangement for adequate Supply of pure drinking water for workers.

      The quantity supplied daily shall be at least as many glass as there is workers.  In every factory effective   arrange shall be made to provide & maintain at suitable point conveniently situated for all workers employed they’re in, a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. All such points shall be legible marked Drinking water in a language understood by the majority of the workers & no such point shall be situated within twenty feet of many washing place , urinal or latrine unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief Inspector.

      In every factory is approved in written by the Chief Inspector.

      In every factory where in more two hundred & fifty workers are ordinarily Employed provision shall be made for cooling the drinking water  during The hot weather by effective means &  for distribution thereof.

      Leave policy

      a.   Casual Leave

      b.   Sick Leave

      c.   Annual leave

                d.   Festival leave

                e.   Maternity Leave

      Annual Leave:

      Every worker who has completed one year of continuous service in a factory, shall be allowed during the subsequent period of twelve months, leave the wages for a number of days calculated at the rate of-

      If an adult, one day for every twenty-two days of work performed by him during the previous period of twenty-two days of work performed by him during the previous period of twelve months.

      Provided that a period of leave shall be inclusive of any holiday, which may occur during such period.

      If a worker does not, in any such period of twelve months take the leave to which he is entitled, either in whole or part, any such leave not taken by him shall be added to the leave to be allowed to him in the succeeding period of twelve months.

      Provided that a worker, if an adult shall cease to earn any such leave when earned leave due to him amounts to twenty days and if a child shall cease to earn any such leave when earned leave due to him amount to thirty days: Further provided that any leave applied for by a worker but refused by a occupied or manager or his authorized officer for any reason shall be added to the credit of such worker beyond the aforesaid limit.

      Festival leave:

      1. Every worker shall be allowed to at least 10 days festival holidays with wages in a year. The days and dates for such festivals shall be fixed by the occupier or manager in such a manner as may be prescribed.
      2. A worker may be required to work on any festival holiday, but two days additional compensation holidays with full pay and a substitute holiday shall be provided for his in that case. Ref: Sec 79 of the Factories Act-1965.

      Provided that sick leave or casual leave shall not be accumulated and carried forward to the succeeding year. Ref: Sec 80 of the Factories Act-1965.

      Wages during leave or holiday period-

      For the leave or holidays allowed to a worker, he shall be paid. In case of leave with all wages at the rate equal to the daily average of his full time earnings including dearness allowance, if any for the days on which he worked during the month immediately preceding his leave, but excluding any overtime earnings and bonus.

      In case of leave with half wages at the rate equal to half the daily average of his earnings calculated in the manner provided in clause. Ref: Sec 81 of the Factories Act-1965.

      Payment in advance in certain case, any worker who has been allowed to leave for not less than four days in the case of an adult and five days in the case of a child before his leave begins be paid wages due for the period of the leave allowed. Ref: Sec 82 of the Factories Act-1965.


      The entity of any organization or business entity is responsible for the implementation the requirements of this standard, including all personnel.

      Supplier / Sub-contractor.

      A business entity which provides the company with goods and/ services.


      A business entity in the supply chain directly or indirectly provides the supplier with goods and/ or service integral to, & utilized in/ for, the production of the suppliers &/ or companies goods and/ or services.

      Interested Party-

      Individual or group concerned with or affected by the social performance of the company.

      Working Hour:

      • The company should comply with applicable laws and industry standards on working hours. The normal work week shall be as defined by law but shall not on a regular basis exceed in every seven-day period, all overtime shall be reimbursed at a premium rate and under no circumstances shall exceed 12 hours per employees per week.
      • Other than as permitted inspection 7.3(below), overtime work shall be voluntary.
      •  Where the company is a party to a collective bargaining agreement freely negotiated with worker organizations (AZs defined by the ILO) representing a significant period of its work force it may require overtime working accordance with such agreement to meet short-term business demand. Any such agreement must comply with the requirements of Section.

      Child Labor:

      Definition of Child: Any person less than 15 years of age, unless local minimum age law stipulates a higher age for work or  mandatory schooling in which case the higher age in accordance with developing country expectations under ILO conventions 138, the lower age will apply.

      Definition of child labor: Any work by a child younger than the age specified in the above definition of a child except as provided by ILO recommendation.

      Definition of a child labor: All necessary actions and support to ensure the safety, health, education and development of children who have been subjected to child labor, as defined and are dismissed.

      Definition of Young Worker

      Any worker above the age of a child and under the age of 18 can be defined as young worker.

      Child Labor in the Industrial Area:

      • The company shall not engage in the use of child labor as defined above.
      • The company shall establish document, maintain and effectively communicate to personnel and other interested parties policies and procedures for redemption of children found to be working on situations which fit the definition of child labor above shall provide adequate support to enable such children to attend and remain in school until no longer a child as defined above.
      • The company shall establish document, maintain and effectively communicate to personnel and other interested parties policies and procedures for the promotion of education for children covered under ILO recommendations 146 and young workers who are subject to local compulsory education laws or are attending school, including means to ensure that no harm causes o young or child workers working in the industry, daily transportation to the school and work time should not exceed than 10 hours.
      • The company shall not expose young or child workers in or outside of the workplace that are hazardous, unsafe or unhealthy.

      Recommendation for the Factory:

      • Management knowledge on legal requirements.
      • Company policy on child labor.
      • Workers knowledge on company policy.
      • Procedure of non-engaging child labor.
      • Maintaining age related documents
      • Maintaining workers personal file.

      Forced Labor

      All work or service that is extracted for any person under the menace of any penalty for which said person has not offered him / herself voluntarily or for which such work or service is demanded as a means of repayment of debt.

      Criteria of Forced Labor:

      The company shall not engage in or support the use of forced labor nor shall personnel be required to lodge deposits or identity papers upon commencing employment with the company.

      Participants to verify-

      • Legal requirement mentioned for young worker
      • Visit young workers to assess situation
      • Interview young workers


      • The company shall not engage in or support discrimination in hiring, remuneration, access to training, promotion, termination or retirement, caster, nationality, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, union membership, political affiliation or age.
      • The company shall not interfere with the exercise of the rights of personnel to observe practices or to meet needs relating to race, cast, national origin, religion, disability, gender, union membership or political affiliation.
      • Commitment of non-interference with exercise of the rights of personnel to observe tenets or practices include with companies discrimination policy. Effectively communicated to workers.
      • The company shall not allow behavior including gesture, language and physical contact that is sexual harassment, threatening, abusive or exploitative.
      • Any discrimination activity noticed or reported by any worker in respect of hiring, remuneration, benefits, promotion or termination, job restriction on grounds of face, gender, political affiliation, age, pregnancy etc. reported or noticed.
      • Discriminated in awarding overtime work or any financial benefits, pregnant workers denied work or terminated.

      Working Hour:

      • The company shall comply with applicable laws and industry standards on working hours. The normal work week shall be as defined by law but shall not on a regular basis exceed in every even day period. All overtime work shall be reimbursed at a premium rate and under no circumstances shall exceed 12 hours per employee per week.
      •  Other than as permitted inspection, overtime work shall be voluntary.
      • Force, it may require overtime work in accordance with such agreement to meet short term business demand. Any such agreement must comply with the requirements of section.
      • Where the company is a party to a collective bargaining agreement freely negotiated with worker organizations (as defined by the ILO) representing a significant portion of its work.


      • The company shall ensure that the wages paid for a standard working week shall always meet at least legal or industry, in minimum standards and shall be sufficient to meet basic needs personnel and to provide some discrimination income.
      • The company shall ensure that deduction from wages are not made for disciplinary purposes and shall ensure that wages and benefits composition are detailed clearly and regularly for workers. The company shall also ensure that wages and benefits are rendered in full compliance with all applicable laws and that remuneration is rendered either in cash or cherub from, in a manner convenient to worker.
      • The company shall ensure the labor only contracting arrangements and false apprenticeship schemes are not undertaken in an effort to avoid fulfilling its obligations to personnel under applicable laws pertaining to labor and social security legislation and regulation.

      Occupation Health & Safety Assessment Serious[OHSAS18001]

      1999 in an occupation health & safety assessment serious [OHSAS] for occupational health and safety and management systems to enable an organization to control OHSA and S risks and to improve performance. Much of improvement is attributed to employee education and awareness of safety issues and understanding the increased awareness has been the key factor for OHSA 18001. Organizations saving illegal expenses, building damages, total and equipment damage, product and materials damage & production delays and interruptions.

      Buyers specific compliance standard:

       Reputed international buyers, retailers and distribution companies have their code and compliance standard and whenever they place order they use to enforce their own standards to the manufactures.

      First party audit: Generally done by any management to determine the status of compliance and deadlines of the company.

      Second party audit: By assigning an external assignment.

      Third party audit: Generally conducted by certification body.

      Labor Standard & Workplace Environment in woven Industry

      COMPLENCE Issue will enlighten the particular following in the following areas:

      Additional Benefits that employee often provide include

      • Pay for rest periods.
      • Pay for holiday.
      • Pay for vocation.
      • Pay for sick leaves.
      • Pension program.
      • Accident insurance.
      • Life insurance.
      • Health insurance.
      • Pay for leaves of absence.

      Global Compliance Standards Are

      • Standards of social accountability 8000.(sa8000)
      • Wrap principles.
      • Fla cod of conduct
      • Ohsas 18001 principles.
      • Compliance standards of the buyers.
      • Compliance audit cheek list

      Compliance audit cheek list


      • Child labor.
      • Forced labor.
      • Health & safety.
      • Freedom of association / right to bargain collectively.
      • Discrimination.
      • Working hour.
      • Compensation.
      • Management system.

      Interpretation of WARP Principles

      • Environment.
      • Customs compliance.
      • Drug interdiction.

      Interdiction to Labor Standards

      The setting of international labor standards, where international labor standards come from,  is a unique legislative process involving governments, as well a employers  & workers representatives from around the world.

      The ILO” s mechanisms for international supervision of international labor standards are an acknowledged role model for their effectiveness & efficiency.

      The results over the years are thousands of documented cases of improvement in situations       involving matters ranging from infringements of basic civil rights principles to everyday conditions of work.

      International labor standards are agreed under democratic principles by representatives of government, workers & employers of all the social & economic systems of the world. They are the global model for workplace right & responsibilities. Such, it is the mission of the ILO is to promote their realization.

      Core Elements of Labor Standards:

      Core labor standards are international instruments defining a range human right at work  that provide a guide to civilized, dignified & sustainable workplace. They are universally applicable regardless of stage or nature of National development, & as such universally applicable regardless of stage or nature of National development, & as such provided an important focus on the workplace & the conditions of work in the process of sustainable development.

      CORE LABOUR STANDARDS-Forced labor [1930], convention *29, ratified by 152 countries.

      • Freedom of association & protection of the organize [1948], convention # ratified by 128 countries.
      • Right to organize & collective bargaining [1949] , convention @ 98, ratified by 146 countries.
      • Equal remuneration [1951], convention *100, ratified by 147 countries.
      • Abolition of Forced Labor, [1957] convention: *105 Ratified by 152 countries.
      • Discrimination [1958], Convention: 111, Ratified by 142 countries.
      • Minimize Age [1973] . Convention: 138, Ratified by 88 countries.

      Labor standard: it’s relatively to woven industry in Bangladesh

      • Bangladesh has ratified almost all core labor standards. However, freedom of association & right to bargaining are restricted in EPZ.
      • Bangladesh has fairly legal coverage for all core labor rights.
      • Key stakeholders [GOB Chambers, Development partners NGOs] are presently working together to implement all core standards in our industries.

      Applicable Laws for RMG & Textile:

      THE FACTORY ACT, 1965

      • Health & Safety.
      • Safety.
      • Welfare.
      • Working hours for adults.
      • Employment of young workers.
      • Leave & holidays with wages.
      • Penalties & procedure.
      • The Employment of Labor [Standing] act, 1965].
      • The Employment [Record of Services] Rules: 1957].
      • The payment of Wages Act: 1936.
      • The minimum wages Ordinance, 1961.
      • The worker compensation Act, 1923.
      • The Maternity Benefit Act, 1939.
      • The Industrial Relations Ordinance, 1969.


      • Minimum wages & other Benefit’s.

      Environmental polices & Legislation.

      • National environmental police [1992]
      • National Environmental Action Program [1992]
      • Forest policy [1994]
      • Forestry Master plan [1993-2012]
      • Environment Conservation Act [1995]
      • Environment Conservation Rules [1997]
      • Environment court.
      • Draft national Conservation Strategy.
      • National Environment Management Action plan [NEMAP]

      In order to implement one of the strategies suggested, the ministry OF Commerce, GOB has undertaken a programmed titled: post MFA Actions program for Capacity Building of RMG & Textile Sector. Under this program, a project has been initialed by the Ministry of Commerce named Skill & Quality Development Project [SQDP] in collaboration with the Export Promotion Bureau [EPB] Under this project 10.000 employees of RMG & Textiles sector will be in different areas.

      Initially, the Ministry of Commerce in collaboration with Export promotion Bureau has identified three major areas as follows.

      1. Productivity management.
      2. Quality management.
      3. Compliance norms.


      Child labor.

      Forced labor.

      Health & safety.

      Historical development of SA 8000

      The Council Economic Priorities Expedition Agency CEPAA, founded in 1997, is working to address the growing concern among consumers about labor conditions around the world.

      CEPAA Council Economic Priorities- a 30-year old corporate socials responsibility research institute – carried out a series studies on workplace codes of conduct.

      The studies found to the inconsistencies among workplace codes of conduct, CEPAA has developed a standard, social Accountability 8000.

      Social Accountability 8000

      SA 8000 standard first introduced in 1997 & revised in 2001.

      SA 8000 is an auditable standard for third party verification.

      A on October 31, 2003, about 3100 organization in 38 countries have been certified to SA 8000, Number of companies certified in Bangladesh. During this period are two.

      International Accountability SAI 8000:2001

      Social Accountability International [SAI]

      220 East 23 rd Street Suite:605

      New York, NY 10010,


      Major Global Initiatives

      Sa 800 Social Accountability.

      Warp principals.

      Fia Workplace Code of Conduct.

      Occupational Health & Safety Assessment series-ohsas18001.

      Clean Clothes Campaign [1998, Dutch].

      Ethical Trading Action Initiatives,[UK].

      Ave Sector Social Responsibility.[Germany]

      Normative Elements & Their Interpretation.

      The company shall comply with national & other applicable law, other requirements to which the company subscribes & this standard. When national & other applicable law, other requirements to which the company subscribes & this standard address the same, that provision which is most strength applies. The company shall also respect the principles of the following international instruments:


      • Laws & Workplace regulations.
      • Forced labor.
      • Child labor.
      • Harassment or abuse.
      • Compensation & benefits.
      • Hours of work.
      • Discrimination.
      • Health & Safety.
      • Freedom of association.
      • Customs compliance.
      • Drug interdiction.


      Wrap was establishment in 1997 at request of several members of the American Apparel & Footwear Association –AAFA. The AAFA claims to be the largest sewn product trade association in the United States with over 700 member companies producing more than 85% of sewn product sold to wholesale in the U.S.A. WRAP manages a voluntary compliance program to certify whatever a parallel production facilities adhere to industry endorsed manufacturing principles. Till November 2003, 570 factories have been certified. The certificate is valid for 24 month.

      Interpretation of WRAP Principles-

      Laws & workplace regulations-

      • Forced labor.
      • Child labor.
      • Harassment or abuse.
      • Compensation & benefits.
      • Hours of work.
      • Discrimination of work.
      • Health & Safety.
      • Freedom of association.
      • Customs compliance.
      • Environment.
      • Customs compliance.
      • Drug interdiction.


      Manufacturing of SEWN products will comply with environment rules & regulation & standard applicable practices in all locations where they operate.

      • Environment Polices & Legislation.
      • National environmental policy [1992].
      • Forest policy [1994].
      • Forest master plan [1993-2012].
      • Environmental Conservation rules [1997].
      • Environmental court.
      • Draft National Conservation Strategy.
      • National Environmental Management Action Plan [NEMA].

      EMS Performance Indicators.

      • Patient legal requirements identified by the management. Known to management.
      • Company’s Environmental issues identified.
      • Action plan for addressing environmental impacts effectively taken?
      • Any action taken to converse energy, water, natural gas, etc. Disposable of old waste re-used or recycled.

      Custom Compliance

      • MANUFACTURES OF Sewn products will comply will comply with applicable Customs law & in particular, will establish & maintain programs to comply with customs laws regarding illegal transshipment of apparel.
      • Company should have written policy on customer’s compliance for preventing illegal transshipment.
      • Company should maintain an organization system for error-free documentation & maintain proper category & country of origin.
      • Company should maintain necessary as required to demonstrate full compliance.

      Drug Interdiction / Security

      • Manufacturers of sewn products will maintain facility security procedures to guard against the introduction of non-manifested cargo into outbound shipments [e.g. drugs, explosive, biohazards & / or contraband]
      • Company should have a written policy addressing enforcement & drug prevention.
      • Company should design a qualified person with responsibility for communication, developing & monitoring.
      • Company should secure its premises to prevent the entry or shipment of illegal drugs.
      • Company should use only; goods carries “committed to preventing the illegal shipment of drugs”.


      FAL was born out of the Apparel Industry Partnership a diverse group of manufacturers, consumer, group, labor & human right organization & US universities, brought together by the white House in August 1996 to address labor rights standards in the apparel & footwear sectors.

      FLA has established an industry- wide code of conduct & associated monitoring system to hold companies publicly accountable for their labor practices & for the labor practices other principle contractors & suppliers the world. FAL certified is valid for 2 years & renewable.

      FAL Workplace Code of conduct-

      • Forced labor.
      • Child labor.
      • Harassment discrimination.
      • Health & safety.
      • Freedom of association & collective bargaining.
      • Wages of work.
      • Overtime compensation.

      Introduction to Global Compliance standard.

      Sweatshop labor practice & workers exploitation are very common especially in the developing countries. Lon 1990 continuous reports but Human Rights groups & Media in the USA & Europe created tremendous consumer on sweatshop labor practices.

      The famous American Coffeehouse china Standard was applied in 1995 when its outlets picketed because workers rights were abused in the Central American Coffee Fields.

      Historical Development of Compliance Initiatives

      Sweater labor practice & workers exploitation are very common especially in the developing countries. In 1990s continuous reports by human Rights Group & Media in the USA & Europe created tremendous consumer on sweatshop labor practices. The famous American Coffeehouse china Standard was applied in 1995 when its outlets picketed because workers rights were abused in the Central American Coffee Fields.

      Nike, Reebok, Philip Van Hessen, The Gap & other major companies have experienced numerous protest about conditions in factories abroad, where their products were manufactured in sweatshop conditions,. Now retailers & manufactures did not like to take risk damaging their reputation of their Brands, in respect of workplace abuse. So they have developed compliance codes.

      Bottoms Line Reality.

      Compliance codes have become a fact of life for virtually all exports in Bangladesh to market produces in the developed countries.


      A. Wages & working Hours.

      1. Minimum wages. As per minimum wage ordinance of Bangladesh for garment

      Workers- minimum rate is TK, 9320 per month. Provided that the Trainee /apprentice will get @ TK, 500 per month. Their training period will be not more than three months and after training they will be absorbed in grade no-7 in the concerned department & will enjoy the minimum wages @ TK 930 per month. That is:

      A. Basic wage                         =TK, 600

      B. House rent allowance         =TK,180

      (30% of basic wage)

      C. Medical allowance total     =TK,930

      Ref: BD Gazette- 1994 as per Section 3 & 5 of minimum wages ordinance 1961

      1. Working hours: Normally hour is 08 (Eight) over day & it may be up to 09 (Nine) Hours but not more than 60 (Sixty) Hours per in a week & on an average 56 hours per week in a year. Ref: Sec-50 of factories Act 1965.
      2. Underage workers: No child who was not completed 14 (Fourteen) years of age shall be required or allowed to work in factory.

      Ref: Sec-66 of factories Act 1965.

      1. Overtime pay: If any worker is required to work for more than 8 (Eight) hours in a day or former than 48 (Forty eight) hours in a week, that will be treated as overtime hours, provide that including overtime the total hours of  work of an adult worker shall not exceed 10 (Ten) hours per week in a year. Ref: Sec-50 & 58 of factories Act 1956.
      2. Overtime pay: Where a worker works in factory for more then 8 (Eight) hours in a day or more then 48 (Forty eight) hours in a week, he shall in respect of overtime work, be entitled to allowance at the rate of twice his ordinary rate of his wages Ref: Sec-58 of factories Act 1965.
      3. Special Law applying to woman: No women shall be allowed to work in a factory except between 7 am to 8 pm. Provided that the government may be notification in the official gazette in respect of any class or classes of factory & for the whole year of any part thereof decide the working hours for women between 5 am & 8:30 pm. Ref: Sec-65 of factories Act 1965.
      4. Special Law applying to Youth:  If any Child who has competed his 14 (Fourteen) years of age or any adolescent work in a factory, the manager of the factory has to keep the fitness certificates of that worker from certifying surgeon & child or adolescent worker has to carry a taken of fitness while on duty. No child or adolescent shall be required or allowed to work in a factory-
        1. For more than 05 (Five) hours in a day &
        2. Between the hours of 7 pm & 7 am.

      An the period of work of all children employed in a factory shall be limited sit in two shirts shifts which shall not overlap or spread over more than seven & half hours each.

      Ref: Sec-67,68 & 70 of factories Act 1956.

      ▪ Weekly Holiday: No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in a

        Factory on Sunday or a Friday as the case may be unless- He / she has had or

        Will have a holiday for a whole day, or one of the three days immediately before

        Or after that Sunday or Friday.

      ▪ Provided that no substitution shall be made which will result in any worker

        Working for more than10 (Ten) days consecutively without a holiday for whole


      Ref: Sec-51 of factories Act 1956.

      Compensatory weekly holiday: If any worker is derived from weekly holiday he

        Has to grant the equal number of compensatory holiday within that month or

        Within next 02 (two) month.

      Ref: Sec-52 of factories Act 1956.

      Intervals for rest or meal: No adult worker in a factory shall be liable to work eitherfor more than six hours in anyone day unless he has been allow in interval of at least one hour during that day for rest or meal.

      For more than five hours in anyone day unless he has been allow in interval of at least half an hour during that say for rest or meal: or for more than five hours during that say for rest or meal or

      For more than eight & half hours unless he has an interval under clause (a) or two such intervals under clause (b) during that day rest or meal.

      Ref: Sec-54 of factories Act 1956.

      Night Shift: Where an adult worker in a factory works on a shift which extends beyond midnight-

      In this case holiday for a whole day shall mean a period of twenty- four consecutive hours beginning from the ends of this shift &

      The following day for him shall be deemed to be the period of twenty- hour consecutive hours beginning from the end of this his shift & the hours he has worked after midnight shall be counted towards the previous day.Ref: Sec-56 of factories Act 1956.

      ▪ Extra allowance for overtime: Where a worker works in a factory for more than nine hours in a day or more then forty eight hours in a week.

      Problem and Recommendation

      • The garment industry should be encouraged to raise its managerial & technological standards. Consultants & CAD companies employed have effective services offer. But as conventionally employed their resources would be inadequate & means of more rapidly tilling available knowledge need to be developed. This approach should be adopted on a sufficient scale to rise the productivity of the industry should be adopted on a sufficient scale to rise the productivity of the industry during the initial period of accelerated development work towards improved sewing systems.
      • The garments industry should be encouraged to install available machinery, where it can be shown to be economic, in order to strengthen industry confidence in it to maintain the interest of potential manufactures in this area.
      • Co-operative investigating by garment production & management for manufacturing should be encouraged into the optimum mode of employment of the machinery type under development, with a view to defining production systems based on these machines rather that their potential for substituting existing operations.


      1. I want to recommend that in this garments should expand a Human resource Management. This department controls that kind of factor. The H.R.M section Reviews the job design, compliance issue, productivity time & other relative Importance.
      2. The industry can provide extra facility or the employee those who are wanting to learning for something.
      3. Industry can also collect the graduates & other shill resources those who are educated in this sector. The educational Institute & the Industry can provide the student for research & internship serve in this sector. Those kinds of activity help the Apparel industry for upgrades in every time & match with the changing fashion business world.
      4. In the production level we can apply the job rotation for reduce the boringness from the inner side of the worker. Effective communication & active motivation create a smart industrial environment in the garments.