Most people’s lips moisten just thinking about the smoky aromas and enticing flavors of barbeque. Summer has here, which means its BBQ season for many Americans. I’m a scientist who investigates substances found in nature, as well as a foodie who enjoys barbecuing. Cooking on a grill may appear straightforward, but there is a lot of science that distinguishes barbecue from other cooking methods and produces such a delectable finish.
First and first, the term barbeque must be defined because it may signify different things in different cultures or geographical places. Barbecue is the grilling of food over an open flame at its most basic level. The way heat penetrates the food is what distinguishes barbeque from other cooking methods. On a barbeque, the food is heated via direct contact with the hot grill grates, a process called as conduction. By receiving radiation straight from the flames below, the food heats and cooks. The combination of heating methods allows you to sear the sections of the food that touch the grill while cooking the parts that don’t – like the sides and top – through radiating heat.
The resultant temperature range produces a rich blend of tastes and fragrances. There is far less radiation while cooking on a stovetop, and most of the heating is done with the food in direct contact with the pan. When grilling, you have the option of placing the food directly over the flames (direct heat) or further away (indirect heat). The food is exposed to extremely high temperatures when cooked directly on the grill, which can range from 500 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (260 to 371 Celsius). The indirect cooking method exposes the food to temperatures of 200 to 300 degrees Fahrenheit by placing the heat source to the side or far below the meal (93 to 149 C).
Cooking is the technique of causing chemical reactions in food at a molecular level by employing high heat. The first thing that happens when you cook meat at higher temperatures – such as over direct fire on a barbeque – is that water on the meat’s surface boils away. Once the surface is dry, the heat induces the Maillard Reaction, which causes the proteins and carbohydrates on the exterior of the flesh to react. This reaction creates a complex combination of molecules that enhances the savory or “meaty” flavor of food while also adding depth to aromas and flavors. Many factors impact the reaction and the tastes it generates, including temperature and acidity, as well as the components in any sauces, rubs, or marinades.
Vegetables go through a similar procedure. Water can evaporate or flow down without being caught by a pan during barbecuing. This prevents the veggies from becoming soggy and speeds up the caramelization process. Carbohydrates and sugars are broken down into smaller molecules like maltol, which has a toasted flavor, and furan, which has a nutty, meaty, and caramel-like flavor.