Job design also gives information about the qualifications required for doing the job and the reward (financial and non-financial benefits) for doing the job. Job design is mostly done for managers’ jobs. While designing the job, the needs of the organization and the needs of the individual manager must be balanced.There are various factors which affect job design in the company. They can be explained with the help of diagram.
Factors affecting Job design:
The various factors that affect a job design can classified under three heads. They are:
I] Organizational factors :-
Organizational factors to refer to factors inside the organization which affect job design they are:
a) Task characteristics :-
Task characteristics refer to features of the job that is depending on the type of job and the duties involved in it the organization will decide, how the job design must be done. Incase the company is not in a position to appoint many people; a single job may have many duties and vice versa.
b) The process or flow of work in the organization :-
There is a certain order in which jobs are performed in the company. Incase the company wishes it could combine similar job and give it to one person this can be done if all the jobs come one after the other in a sequence.
c) Ergonomics :-
Ergonomics refers to matching the job with physical ability and characteristics of the individual and in providing an office environment which will help the person to complete the jobs faster and in a comfortable manner.
d) Work practices :-
Every organization has different work practices. Although the job may be the same the method of doing the job differs from company to company. This is called work practice and it affects job design.
II] Environmental factors :-
Environmental factors which affect job design are as follows:
a) Employee availability and ability :-
Certain countries face the problem of lack of skilled labour. They are not able to get employees with specific education levels for jobs and have to depend on other countries due to this job design gets affected.
b) Social and cultural expectations :-
The social and cultural conditions of every country is different so when an MNC appoints an Indian it has to take into account like festivals, auspicious time, inauspicious time, etc. to suit the Indian conditions. This applies to every country and therefore job design will change accordingly.
III Behavioral factors :-
Job design is affected by behavioral factors also. These factors are:
a) Feedback :-
Job design is normally prepared on the basis of job analysis and job analysis requires employee feedback based on this employee feedback all other activities take place. Many employees are however not interested in providing a true feedback because of fear and insecurity. This in turn affects job deign.
b) Autonomy :-
Every worker desires a certain level of freedom to his job effectively. This is called autonomy. Thus when we prepare a job design we must see to it that certain amount of autonomy is provided to the worker so that he carries his job effectively.
c) Variety :-
When the same job is repeated again and again it leads to burden and monotony. This leads to lack of interest and carelessness on the job. Therefore, while preparing job design certain amount of variety must be provided to keep the person interested in the job.