Report on Industrial Training in and Sinha Textile Group

Report on Industrial Training in and Sinha Textile Group


Industrial attachment is an important and essential part of 4 year B.Sc. in Textile Engineering Course. Actually industrial attachment is the practical experience for every Textile Engineer which is needed to be familiar not only the industry but also all over the necessary job related to continue in any industry. During student life a student cannot know about the practical condition so its badly needed for every student for attain for the industrial attachment .The Opex & Sinha Textile Group is truly an excellent industry from our point of view. All types of modern technology are well arranged here. Every section in here helps us so much by giving information during our training period which was unbelievable.

Specially IT Department maintain the Management Information System a vital role for the companies smooth operation and development, We are so satisfied and lucky student to completed our Industrial Attachment in Opex & Sinha Textile Group. We think this Industrial Attachment will be outstanding helpful in our future career life.


Project Description

The Opex and Sinha Textile Group is a composite textile-manufacturing complex built on an area of 43 acres of land at Kanchpur, about 20 km away from Dhaka on the bank of river Shitalakhya. It is one of the largest complexes of its kind in South Asia producing high quality yarn, gray fabrics, dyed fabrics, printed fabrics and knit fabrics. Swiss, Italian, German, and French made computer-controlled machineries have been installed in each of the divisions to deliver quality textiles, which meet the demand of European and American customers.

Major portion of turnover of the textile segment are for RMG units. Total fabrics requirement for the group RMG segment is around 50 million yards per year. Out of the same, the textile units supplied around 18 million yards per year. To mention apart from cost advantage, sourcing from own backward linkage ensures quality of the product as well as lead-time advantage for the RMG segment.

The Opex and Sinha RMG division has an annual capacity of 6 million dozen of RMG unit with a lead time of 60-75 days. It comprises of 28 companies with 170 standards production lines and a total covered factory space of 9,72,000 square feet. The main product of Opex are in both woven and knit fabrics; such as – shirts, pants, shorts, short – all, jumpers, overalls, jackets, vests, sportswear, sleep wear, ladies dresses, T-shirts, and fleece items, with imported fabrics from all over the world.

Most of the main RMG companies of the group are based in their Kanchpur Complex. Opex Industries Ltd, one of the largest companies of the group, established in 2005 is in the Kanchpur Complex and has 16 lines of Denim RMG production.

Factory Profile
Company Name : Opex Group (Garments Manufacturing Division)
Sinha Textile Group (Spinning, weaving, Dying Division)
Medlar Group (Garments Manufacturing Division)

Status : Private Ltd. Company
Type & Business of the company : Export of RMG
Export of Textile Products as backward linkage of RMG
Year of Establishment : 1984
Buyers : 1. AMC, 2. American Eagle, 3. Celio, 4. H & M, 5.Cortefiel, 6. Dorby Frocks, 7.GAP, 8. Gymboree, 9. Charming Shoppes, 10. J.C. Penney. 11. Jhon Forsyth of Canada, 12. Joni Blair 13. Levi Strauss,14.Mervyns, 15. Phillips Van Heusen, 16. Regatta, 17. Scarlet, 18. Sears, 19. Seiden Sticker, 20. Squeeze, 21.Target, 22. V. F. Asia etc.

Factory Location : Mohakhali, Kanchpur, Mirpur.
Address : Head Office: Mohakhali Tower
82, Mohakhali, C/A

Merchandising Office (Kancpur Zone)
Sinha Textile Complex, Kancpur
Sonargaon, Narayanganj.

Merchandising Office (Dhaka Zone)
56/1, Block#C, Section#13,
Mirpur, Dhaka-1216

Hong kong Office: Joyful Miles Ltd.
16B, Alpha House 27-33 Nathan Road
Tsimshatsui, Hong kong.

U.S.A Office:
8409 Haalli Ford Ct, Plano Texax:75025

Payment Terms : Confirmed Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

Main Production : The main product of Opex are in both Knit & Woven fabric, such as Shirts, Pants, Shorts, Short-all, Jumper, Jacket, Sports Wear, Sleep Wear, Ladies Dresses, T-shirts, and Fleece item.
Main Market : EU, USA, UK & Canada.

Social Policy
The Opex and Sinha Textile Group is committed to the best human workplace practices. Their goal is to continuously improve their Human resource policies and procedures through education, training, communication and employees involvement.
To that end Opex and Sinha Textile Group has identified eight (8) areas of importance. The company commits to management review, employees open communication, policy development and coordination with the SA 8000 standard to comply with all state/local laws and industrial/factory laws of peoples republic of Bangladesh to provide a favorable employment environment that respects understands the needs of its employees.
The company commits to inform all employees of its policy and position on the SA 8000 standard. All employees will be made aware of the policy and company statement upon implementation. Going forward all new employees will be trained on SA 8000 in new employees’ orientation. Periodically throughout the year the company will reaffirm its commitment to the SA 8000 policy through employee communications such as office notice, demonstration and payroll stuffers. The eight (8) identified areas are:
Child labor
Forced labor
Health & Safety
Freedom of assembly/ Right to collectively bargain
Disciplinary practices
Working hours
Remuneration/ Compensation
Number of machine : 10200
Production Line : 170
Capacity / day (all line) : 170000¬¬¬¬—204000 Pieces


Managing Director
General Manager
Production Director
Production Manager
Assistant General Manager
Quality Manager
Admin Manager
Assistant Admin
Line Chip
Quality Controller


Production Machine Description
Pattern making machine:

1. High speed and accuracy supported by servomotor, straight lead rail and integrated circuit block.
2. Easy to operate.
3. Compatible with any CAD software.
4, Stable performance with long using lifetime

Marker drawing machine:
Gerber plotter
XLp Plotter Series
The XLp’s intuitive LCD display panel and software interface allow for reduced operator learning curves and increased ease of use. The Gerber Win Plot software seamlessly integrates with marker making software and can plot a variety of file formats
_ An affordable inkjet plotter with high level of sophistication and quality
_ Highest value proposition in terms of price/square meter in its category
_ Low maintenance cost; backed with Gerber worldwide service support
_ Ink-saving mode to help extend the life of cartridges
_ Easy to install and train to minimize disruptions to CAD room.

Cutting Machine:
Brand name: HIKARI
• Special base and knife stand. Smooth cutting, labor-saving. There won’t cause errors while cutting from both sides.
• Improved knife sharpener prolongs lifetime of knife. Elaborate abrasive belt ensures the sharpness of knife blade.
• Balanced motor, precise startup and stop. No vibration while starting.
• Special gears. No noise when sharpening.
• The parts are finished by CNC processing machines once, which are standard and precise.
• Directly cut the pattern pieces from the fabric lays
• Cutting speed high
• Sharp and heavy corners can be cut
• Blade is very sharp
• Blade height 10-33 cm
• Blade stropped 2.5 cm-4.5 cm

Sewing Machine Description

Which are used in sewing section

Plain m/c
Over lock m/c
Flat lock m/c
Kansai m/c
Chain stitch m/c
Vertical m/c
Eye late hole m/c
Two needle m/c
Feed off the Arm m/c
Zigzag m/c
Bar tack m/c
Button Holing m/c
Button attach m/c
Snap Button attach m/c
Description of the Plain Machines Are Bellow:

• One needle
• Two tensioners
• Three guide
• One hook
• Two thread
• One bobbin case
• One magnate guide

• Bottom hemming
• Belt top seem stitch
• Belt joint stitch
• Loop tack stitch
• Pocket joint stitch
• Jipper joint
• Flap make
• Flap top stitch

Flat lock m/c:
• 4 tensioner
• 3 thread
• Contain a holder
• 2 needle
• Zigzag stitch
• Knit hemming
• Loop making

Over lock sewing m/c:
Overlook stitching was invented by the Merrow Machine Company in 1881.An overlook stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. Usually an overlook sewing machine will cut the edges of the cloth as they are fed through (such machines are called ‘sergers’), though some are made without cutters. The inclusion of automated cutters allows over look machines to create finished seams easily and quickly

• This over lock sewing machine is applicable to cover edging operation of thin, moderate and thick fabrics. Due to its automatic lubricating device.
• The machine operates perfectly and smoothly at low sewing tension, and perfect stable stitches even at high speed seaming.
• Suitable For thin, moderate and thick fabrics.

• 5 thread
• 4 tensioner
• 2 knifes (up / down)
• 2 needle for 5 thread
• 1 needle for 3 thread
• 3 lopper for 5 thread
• 2 lopper for 3 thread
• Over lock stitch

Bar tack m/c:
The high speed bar tacking machine is designed for making reinforced stitching or various kinds of clothing such as suits/jeans and working clothes and also for eye let button hole tacking. Tack length can be easily adjusted.
Reduction gear and some mechanism simplified to get improved durability and reliability.

• New type V belt with double tier mechanism which is simple and much more reliable has been adopted which eliminates thread breaking at high speed.
• Space on machine helps superior cloth movement.
• Independent auto thread trimming mechanism.
• Smoother feed cam adjustment helps in easier tack size control.
• Suitable for medium to heavy duty material.
To created Barack stitches in garments.
Bar tacking is a specialized sewing stitch designed to provide immense tensile strength to the garment or equipment it is used on. Bar tacking is commonly used on backpacks, tents, tactical gear, and other heavy wear sewn items where normally sewn stitches might give way at a crucial moment. In general, bar tacking is a sign of good quality, although the rest of the product should always be looked over carefully as well. When a sewing pattern calls for bar tacking, it indicates that the designer feels that section of the pattern is a critical area that needs extra reinforcement and following areas it can used.
• Loop attach
• Fly make
• Pocket side
• Front side
• Back pocketing
• zipper lay
• In seem

Kansai m/c:
kansai sewing machine is suitable for zigzag sewing, embroidery, abutted seam on light and medium material. It has excellent performance ratio and is conveniently arranged. It has bobbin winder integrated in the arm cover with in operator’s view. It is suitable to sew underwear, corset, waist sections of ladies body suits, and swim suits.
• 2 needle
• 4 thread
• 8 tensioner
• 21 lopper point(used two lopper depends on distance of stitches)
• Back yoke stitch
• Back belt stitch

Chain stitch m/c:
Chain stitch is a sewing and embroidery technique in which a series of looped stitches form a chain-like pattern. Chain stitch is an ancient craft – examples of surviving Chinese chain stitch embroidery worked in silk thread have been dated to the Warring States period (5th-3rd century BC). Handmade chain stitch embroidery does not require that the needle pass through more than one layer of fabric. For this reason the stitch is an effective surface embellishment near seams on finished fabric. Because chain stitches can form flowing, curved lines, they are used in many surface embroidery styles that mimic “drawing” in thread
• 2 needle
• 2 looper
• 4 thread & 4 tensioner (back 2/front 2)
• Back rise stitch
• Back yoke stitch
• Top sin ¼ stitch

Feed off the Arm m/c:
• 2 needle
• 2 Lopper
• 4 thread (Lopper 2/needle 2)
• Contains T & Magnate guide
• 3 tensioner

• Back rise stitch
• Inseam stitch
• Back yoke top sin
Button Holing m/c:
Buttonholes are holes in fabric which allow buttons to pass through, securing one piece of the fabric to another. The raw edges of a buttonhole are usually finished with stitching. This may be done either by hand or by a sewing machine. Some forms of button, such as a Mandarin button, use a loop of cloth or rope instead of a buttonhole.
• 2 thread
• 1 needle
• 2 tensioner
• Contains bobbin case, hook & knife
• To attached button in garment

Button Attach m/c:
• This is a single needle chain stitch button sewing machine which inherits the excellent sewing capability and hassle free operation.
• The four hole button sewing mode can be easily switched over to two hole button sewing.
• Number of stitches and stitching patterns are easily adaptable.
• The machine ensures consistence sewing performances even at maximum speed 1500 spm.
• The thread trimming mechanism helps to produce beautifully finished seam with lesser thread consumption.
• suitable for all kinds of shirts suits and work uniform.

• To attach button in gt.

Embroidery Designs machine
Embroidery is an ancient variety of decorative needlework in which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands of some material on to a layer of another material. Most embroidery uses thread or wool stitched onto a woven fabric.

Machine Description:
Category Commercial Embroidery, 1 Head Region Detroit, MI Title Melco Saurer Amaya XT Description 2 machines, 2007, 16 Needle commercial embroidery machine.

Washing machine

ONELLO, Industrial washing machine for stone washing, model G1 300, matr. 0284, with opening sampling pass thought, max load 200 Kg power supply 300 volts, 50 Hz, 40 kw, complete with control panel, size approx. 2700x2400x3100h, with stainless steel tank for introducing products, year 1990.

Dryer machine:
Ngai shing new horizon Co. Ltd


Types of Raw Materials
Fabric: Woven and Knit Fabric
Accessories: Thread, Button, Zipper, Fuse, Hook, Clip, Elastic, Hanger, Poly, Hang tag, Main Level, Size level, C/O level, Tag pin, Patch level, Price Ticket, Button, etc.
Washing Chemical: Necessary raw materials required for stone, Pigment, Acid, bleach & Enzyme Wash These very according to the order of the buyer
Sources of Raw Materials
Required raw materials are purchased from following countries through agent:
a. Hong- Kong
b. Taiwan
c. Philippines
d. India
e. Germany
f. Brazil
g. Pakistan
h. South china

It has big store room within fabric, trimming, accessories, box, readymade garments, contains difference types materials electrical and machinery accessories. Mainly it two sections such types of section are

Technical Store:
It contains various types electrical, machinery & materials which supply in many section of garments, such as
Various types of sewing m/c and their parts
Guide Clamp Shuttle carrier
Zipper guide Belt Shuttle
Feed dog Hand glove spring
Folder Knife Bobbin winter
Guard Blade Screw
Lopper Roller covers Patty
Attachments sate Needle Finger
Bobbin Pressure feed Rotary hook
Bobbin case

Standard commercial name of fabrics
There are many types of standard commercial name of fabric i.e. are bellow
A well-known basic cotton or blended fabric it is generally 2/1 or 3/1 warped faced right hand twill. This is very durable most popular all over the world. Now this time all types of fashionable garments are made from denim mainly used in sportswear and evening wear. The fabric specification of denim= (20 x16 Ne)/ (90X60)
A strong, warp-faced, cotton twill fabric of medium to heavy weight generally made with coarse carded yarns in in a two up, one down left- hand twill, in a dense construction. Resembles one denim bat the latter is warp faced, right hand twill. Three up one down twill is also called as drill. The fabric specification of denim=(14 x16 tex)/( 50X32cm), (27x46tex)/ (44x32cm), (38x43tex)/(36x20cm). Used in the greige bleached, or printed state, for a wide variety of such uses as work cloths, pocketing, shoe-linings, uniforms, book bindings, coated fabrics, industrial fabrics.

A tightly woven, warp- faced made with 45 or 63 degree angle twill and given a clear finish. The warp generally employs twice the number of the yarns per inch as thus filling at the diagonal rib or cord is distinct, closely set and raised. Made with carded or combed, single or ply yarns of worsted, cotton, silk, manufactured staple and various combinations in dress and suiting weights. This types of fabrics are mainly used in men’s, women’s, children’s wear, sportswear, suit’s, uniforms riding habits, rain coats, sky wear, fabric shoes.
poplin :
A durable plain weave fabric having fine cross ribs produced by employing work that are finer then the filling yarns, with about two or three times as many end per inch as picks. It is produced from combination of such types of fibers such as silk, cotton, wool. It is mainly used in women’s wear, sportswear, shirt, pajamas, and decorative fabrics. The specification of a poplin fabric = (14/2 x 60 Ne) / (60 x 14).
It is warp-faced fabric. It is also three harness cotton or cotton blend twill fabric. In Jean fabrics generally woven of corded yarns in weights lighter than drill, it has more yarn per inch and finer twill line than drill. Jeans occasionally are made with cotton warp and low-grade wool or Soddy filling. It is used backing of the coated fabrics children’s sportswear, decorative fabrics. The specification of a jeans fabric = (30 x 30 Tex) / (36 x 26 cm).
It made in higher counts for domestic uses such as bed sheets, table sheets and floor sheets. Sheeting is maid in medium and heavy weight in the following classification: coarse, ordinary lightweight, narrow, soft-fillet and wide. It also may from of linen or nylon yarns. It may be needed sheeting fabric which is used in fitted crib and bed sheet. Industrial sheetings are made from cotton yarns. This types of fabric are mainly used in wall cloth, floor covering, rubberized goods, windows shads and furniture covering.
Suiting is more important types of fabrics that have body and tailor well. It is general term for a draoad. It is used for men’s women’s suits, sportswear and occasionally dresses. Wool manufactured fibers, especially spun types, cotton, linen and other fiber are used either alone or in blends and combination.
a light-weight, sheer fabric with a crisp, wiry hand, made of hard twist yarns in a low count plain with weave. Voile fabric are made from cotton, silk, rayon, acetate and worsted. Voile fabric generally have substantially more twist than warp yarns. It is used in women’s wear as blouses certain and dress etc.

Fabric accessories There many types of fabric accessories are used in garments manufacturing sectors, which are below-
Hand take
Main Level
Joker level etc.


Swatch Making
Swatch making is more important work garment sector. In line to line m/c to m/c work continue according to swatch card.
A card which contains garment making fabric and fabrics accessories such as –threads, buttons, elastics, level, japers e.g. . These types of card are called as swatch card. E.g. in bellow-

Swatch card contains following items–
• Fabric
• Buttons
• Threads
• Levels
• Hocks
• Elastics
• Zippers , etc.

Sequence of garment manufacturing processes
manufacturing process
CAD, Pattern & Marker Department
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer technology for the design of objects, real or virtual. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.
CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) objects.
CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry.
An ornamental design in a fabric Pattern may be produced either by the construction of the fabric by applying designs, by other means for printing, embossing or embroidery.

It is a thin paper which contains all the necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments. It gives special instructions for cutting. It can be done both manually and computerized method.
In computerized method all information’s are stored in the pre-fashioned data file and an operator helps the computer to make the best choice.
Maker width is taken according to the fabric width. Fabric spreading should be done by taking the guideline from maker width
Points should be considered before maker making:
• Fabric width must be higher than maker width (1/2”).
• Fabric length must be higher than maker length (1”+1”).
• When pattern pieces are laid down on the layer of fabric, the grain line should be parallel to the line of the warp in a woven fabric and Wales in knit fabric where pattern pieces are laid across the layers, the line is kept parallel to weft / course.
• All the pattern pieces of a garment should be alone the same direction when laid down on an asymmetric fabric.
• Length of cutting table should be considered.
• Plan for garments production should also be considered.
• For the efficient marker, it is required to ensure the following things:
• One should be easily see the full length.
• To know about the appropriate width.
• The marker starts with the large pattern pieces. Then fits the smaller pieces in the gap of the larger pieces. Thus the fabric wastage is minimized and efficiency is increased.
• After that the patterns are shuffled in various directions to reduce the marker length. It also helps to increase maker efficiency.

1. Sample section
2. Cutting section
3. Sewing section
4. Washing
5. Finishing section

Sample Department
Sketch received from buyer to, manufacturers containing design including measurement of the style. Assimilating of diagram of net dimension on paper each and individual part which is called pattern when move with it throughout the whole manufacturing processes. After getting all the specs the sample is made and then it tested, inspected and other standard tested method when sample is ok, then it is sent to buyer for identify the faults of sample and point it. After that it returned to sample department .after rectify the sample is again sent to buyers. If it is ok, then start manufacturing processes.

Flow chart of sample department
(it is given by buyer for make sample and products are made according to that style of designed)

Basic block
(Without any allowance)

Working pattern
(To make of garment according to design)

Sample making
(Sample is made by sample man)

Basic manufacturing difference
(Critical path is identify)

Approved sample
(Sample approved by buyer)

(To esteemed the making charge, trimming, fabric required and profit)
Cutting Section
Fabric cutting:
The definition of fabric is very complex. In garments industries fabric is cut from lay and spreading accuracy and properly which is termed as fabric cutting.

Production pattern
(To make production pattern for fabric cutting)

(It is done according to difference size)

Marker making
(To make marker according to various parts of production pattern)

Fabric spreading
(To spread the fabric for cut)

(To cut the fabric)

(To make the bundle according to various types of garment parts)

Requirements of fabric cutting:
• in cutting
• Precession of cut
• Clean edge
• Infused edge
• Consistency
• Support of the lay
Lay Preparation:
• Layers shall collect lay slip, cutting job card, lay sheet from the minusing person.
• Layers shall lay the fabric according to the lay slip details.
• Layers shall collect rolls of only one shade and one width for the lay at a time ,if any shade change is noticed then use separators- i.e. lay sheet has to be placed for identification.
• The cutting in charge has to decide upon the kind of lay such as – face-to-face, face to back, face up, face down, grain line, nap direction during the PP meeting stage upon the analysis of the garment.
• Use lay separator sheets to separate rolls of different shades if used in the same lay—the shade category should be mentioned on every lay separator sheet also.
Lay Precaution:
• During lying the layers should check the lay-to-lay shade variation & also center to selvedge variation as a part of online check procedure.
• QC shall inspect the lay for lay tension, width, length, grain line, nap direction etc.
• End wastage for lying of fabric shouldn’t be more than 1 cm.

Bulk Cutting:
• Lay wise manpower requirement must be planned.
• Cutters must be trained on the methods of accurate cutting, especially for parts with deep curves. If possible diagrammatic representation of the direction of movement of the cutter needs to be illustrated.
• Cutters shall inspect the cutting machine for oil leakage, straightness of the blade, sharpening quality, evenness in sharpening of the blade, dust accumulation before cutting.
• Cutters shall cut lay as per the mark up using straight knife m/c and move the parts to band knife as per the discussion in PP meeting.
• QC shall inspect all the cut parts using patterns and initiate corrective action upon the detection of defect.
• Prepare 1st cut bundle inspection report; notify fabric defects and cutting defects to FM/PM.
• QC should have a cutting checklist against which 1st bundle audit has to be conducted. Checklist should have details of allowances, tolerance included in pattern, notches and embellishments placement markings details.
• The size of the straight knife for cutting lightweight fabrics should be 6” only.
• Straight knife must be uniformly sharpened from top to bottom as frequently required,. This ensures even sharpening along the full length of the knife/blade.
Note: If sharpening of blade is uneven / inconsistent, it would result in uneven depth of notch marks and variation in cutting too…
• For Band knife cutting, patterns preferably made of tin should be used.
• The patterns used for band knife must be changed regularly upon monitoring the w wear and tear on the pattern, due to frequent usage.
Method of fabric cutting:
There are three method of cutting are follow
• Manual
• Hand operated scissor.
• Manually operated power knife
• Straight knife
• Band knife
• Round knife
• Die knife
• Notcher
• Drill
• Computerized
• Knife
• Laser
• water knife
• Plasma torch

Straight knife cutting machines are used in Opex & Sinha Textile Group. Because it has some advantages from others which are follows.
• Comparatively cheap
• Can be transferred easily
• Easily operated
• Round corner can cut smooth easily
• Fabric can be cut from any angle
• Directly garments components separated from fabric lays

Calculation for cutting man:
Fabric consumption calculation system:
The quantity of fabric which is required to produce a garment is called consumption. We can calculate and determine the consumption of fabric by the following two system:
i. Marker planning system
ii. Mathematical system

Marker Planning System:
In the system mentioned here studying the range of size, following six pcs of six sizes can be sorted out from size range. As in XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL Besides these we can choose three pcs of three size or twelve pcs of twelve sizes for our convenience. It depends on our intelligence and the size range; thereafter paper pattern can be made by grading to the above garments as per measurement sheet. Having made the paper pattern it should have to lay each parts of the paper pattern on a marker paper of similar fabric width. After marking the paper pattern if we measure marker paper to length wise, we will find an aggregate consumption of six pcs of garment. If the aggregate is divided by six, we will find a consumption of one pc garment as such we will find a consumption of one dozen garments from the above system calculations.

Mathematical system:
Whatever is the fabric consumption of a garment or whatever quantity of fabric is required to produce a garment is measured by mathematical system। Mathematical system is a system of rough estimation. Consumption of a sample garment or consumption as per measurement sheet is calculated mathematically by measuring the area of length and width of each parts of each pcs of garment

Fabric Consumption Calculation of a Basic Pant:
Fabric width =60’’ -1’’
½ waist circular =46cm +8(seam allowance) =54cm
Front rise =28cm including WB +8(seam allowance) =36cm
½ thigh circular =36cm+6(seam allowance) = 42cm
Inseam length =82cm +3(seam allowance) =85cm
# Consumption formula = ( ½ waist cir x front rise) x2 + ( ½ thigh cir x inseam length) x 4÷ 36 ÷ 59 + waste %
= [{( 54x 36)x2}+{(42×85)x4}÷36÷59+5%] cm
= [( 3888+14280) ÷ 6.45÷36÷59+0.05] yds/piece
= (1.326+0.05) yds/piece
= 1.72 yds/piece
= 1.78 yds/piece

Sorting out the components according to size and for each size make individual bundle
Cutting no :3
Bundle no :2
Style no :1700
Quantity :10
Color :Red
Parts name :Pocket
Size:S M L :8c
Serial no : 145-170=26
Bundle card:
The bundle card is most important in the garments section. In export qualify garments any type of shading and size mistake is not accepted, so it is used. Because buyer can not accepted any types of shading and size mistake garments.
Bundle number: 08
Top : Sample:
Color : Dark wash
Style no : 45721
Quantity : 10 pies
Figure of bundle card 26. Understanding the information in a Bundle card

Company name : Bundle card contains name of it manufacturing company.

Color: It contains names of color. Because garment has many types color such as Red, Black, Yellow, Blue, Green etc.

Style no : Company gives various types of style number. Normally it has five digit number ex. 45216, 54213, 58746.

Quantity: which amount of pcs of garment contains in a bundle, it is write on the bundle card. Ex- 10, 12, 14.

Sewing Section
Flow chart of sewing section for working process:
Production pattern
(To make pattern for garment)

(It is done according to difference size)

Marker making
(To make marker)

Fabric speading
(To speaded the garment for cutting)

(To cut the fabric for garment manufacturing)

(To separed the various parts of garment)

Sewing thread inspection:
Thread inspections are able to move 140-160 km speed per hours during into the needle eye of sewing machine.
strength of thread must be 2-32 due to friction between the threads and parts of machine.
Criteria of sewing thread:
the following are the tests done to identify thread construction.
thread count
thread ply
thread number of twist
thread balance
thread tenacity
thread elongation

Quality control if sewing section
The following three defects should be identify and must made defect three in the quality control section.

Sewing defects:
• needle damage,
• skipped stitch,
• tread drawn off,
• seam pucker,
• wrong stitch density,
• uneven stitch,
• staggered stitch,
• defected stitch,
• oil spot.

Seaming defects:
• Uneven width
• Uneven seam line
• Not secured by back stitch
• Twisting
• No matching of check or stripe
• No matching of seam
• Unexpected materials are attached with the seam
Not sewn by matching face side or back side of fabrics
Use of wrong stitch type
Wrong shade matching of thread

Assembly defects:
• Defected finished components by size
• Imperfect garments size
• Use of wrong ticket
• Missing of any parts of garments
• Imperfect alignment of components
• Wrong placing
• Folding
• Looseness
• Shade variations
• False direction of fabric part
• Imperfect matching of trimming in the garments.

Embroidery Designs Section

Embroidery is an ancient variety of decorative needlework in which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands of some material on to a layer of another material. Most embroidery uses thread or wool stitched onto a woven fabric.
Embroidery has traditionally been used to decorate clothing and household furnishings including table linens, tray cloths, towels and bedding, but you can literally embroider anything as long as it is made out of an evenly woven fabric and can be held firmly in the hand or in a special embroidery hoop or tapestry frame. The art of hand embroidery is a painstaking and laborious process, but today garments are often decorated with machine embroidery instead.
Embroidery has also been used as a form of art and for decoration, through the creation of embroidered or cross-stitch samplers, tapestries, wall-hangings and other works of textile art. Annemieke Mein is one example of a contemporary textile artist who creates embroidered work.

Embroidery Styles and Techniques
Some embroidery styles include:
• Assisi Embroidery
• Bargello or Florentine embroidery
• Black work Embroidery
• Bunka Shishu
• Canvas work
• Counted-thread embroidery
• Crewel embroidery
• Cross-stitch (can mean the particular stitch or a style of embroidery)
• Drawn thread work
• Gold work
• Hard anger embroidery
• White work

Washing Unit
Production In washing plant
Garments wash
Enzyme wash
Stone wash
Stone + enzyme
Bleach wash
Acid wash
Monkey wash
Sand blast
Tint wash
Pigment wash
Garments over dyeing
Heavy garments wash
a. Garments dyeing
b. Direct dye
c. Reactive dye.
Production planning, sequences & operation in washing plant
Production parameters:
Mismatching / shade variation of fabric
Spotted garments
Machine breakdown
Variable ratio of water and chemicals
20% wastage accepted

The general production process is given below-
Store-washing manager –washing in charge – dyeing master / chemist- normal/ enzyme wash
Store shade matching –drying hydro extracting – shade matching dyeing
Chemicals used
1. Acetic acid
2. Anti stain lp-301/pa310
3. Ansipan de paste
4. Bleaching powder
5. Enozymsl/j90
6. Hydrogen per oxide
7. Hypo
8. Soda ash
9. Denylight iil
10. Solosoft – mw
11. Ecosil mac-99
12. Hostapuru wc
13. Enosize hts
14. Silicon oil-1070
15. Pumic stone
16. Fickring ffr/wrd
17. Globar salt
18. Waiting agent
19. Brightner
20. Common salt
21. Potassium per manganate
22. Staple
23. Apriton
24. Aluminium oxide
25. Occuplex-dnnt

1. Normal wash:
• For 3 or 4 pieces garments
• Softener 100-200 gm.
• Silicone 100-300 gm.
• For denim in case of normal wash any of the desizing and softener step is done.
2. Pigment wash:
o Ionize hits pigments will be catalyzed at 300- 500 gm.
o Water 70 litter.
o 20-30 minutes
o 2 rinse
o 4 types of pigments are used
o Cold water used to dissolve the color
o Machine will start run by using 50 litter water.
o Temp will start run by using 50 litter water.
o 20 to 30 minutes to beat the color
o Machine will start run by using 50 litter water
o Temp will be color brightener are used 100 gm for 2-3 minutes
o 2rinse
o Dryer used to dry
3. Bleach wash
o For denim 2 to 3 pieces
o Desizing agent used 150 gm and anti-stain agent used 200 gm.
o 60 degree temp
o 10 minutes
o 2 rinse
o Enzyme used 150to 200 gm and stone 5 kg
o Time 30 to 40 minutes
o 2 rinse will take 15 to 30 minutes
o Bleach is used 1 kg
o 5to 10 minutes
o to destroy the smell of the bleach hypo is used after bleaching 300 gm for 2 legs for 1 to 2 minites
o Next acetic acid is used 100 to 150 gm.
o 1 rinse
o Softener is used 100 to 200 gm.
o 2 minutes.
o Dryer.

4. Enzyme + stone wash:
• Desinzing agent used 150 gm and anti- stain agent used 200 gm.
• Temp 60 degree
• Time 10 minutes
• 2 rinse
• Enzyme used 150 to 200 gm. And stone 5 kg
• Time 30 to 40 minutes
• 2 rinse
• Softener 100-200 gm.
• 2 minutes.
• Dryer
5. Acid wash
• Desizing agent 150 gm and anti-stain 200 gm.
• Tem, 60 degree
• Time 10 minutes
• 2 rinse
• Dryer
Sand blasting and other dry process
Sand blasting is a mechanical process of faded affect formation on garments fade form heavy fabrics like denim and jeans, this process is followed by a wash of dying process. Aluminum oxide is used for sand blasting. These aluminum oxides are blown at very high pressure through a gun, the gun has a switch to start and stop flow of aluminum oxides. Garments to be sand blasted are placed on the bed of closed chamber. Then the gun is operated by hand, when the switch of the gun is operated, aluminum oxides from a feeding chamber through pipe and gun starts blowing. the blowing of aluminum oxides are done on the garments surface , the area of the garments fabric surface is instantly faded by the flowing action of aluminum oxide due to frictional effect of aluminum oxide the blow of the aluminum oxides on the garment fabric surface is controlled at 10 degree to 20 degree angle. Higher the blowing angle, higher the fading affect and higher the risk of garments fabric damage.
1. Hand rubbing
2. Hand craping
3. Wrinkle
4. Grinding and destroy
5. P. P. spray
6. P. P. sponging

Finishing Section
The process by which unwanted crease and crinkle are removed with the view of increasing smoothness, brightness and beauty of the garments is called pressing. In the garments industries it is called ironing. This process plays an important role to grow attractiveness to the buyers.
Materials used in garment Finishing:

Iron Muster cartoon box
Hanger Size sticker
Elastic clip Poly bag
Joker Inner box
Gum taps Neck board

Full board Tag pin
Tissue paper Al pin
Hand tag Ball pin
Back board Blister

Flow chart of working processes in Finishing Section
of Opex & Sinha Textile Group is gives in bellow:
Inside quality control
(To checked inside of a garments)

Get up quality control
(To checked all processes of garments making)

(To iron the garments)

Measurement checking
(To measure all parts of the garments for accuracy)

(To attach Waist)

Button attach
(To attach button)

(To iron again)

Again checking
(To check again)

Hand tagging
(To attach hand tag)

Folding / hungering
(To folding/hungering according to buyer requirement)

(To separate various shade of garments)

(To pack in the poly bag)

(To keep on carton on buyer requirements)

Cartooning is very important every production manufacturing company for final product shipment.
Types of carton:
DEPEND ON PAPER: 1. Khaki Carton Or Brown Carton
2. Duplex Carton
3. Box Carton

DEPEND ON STITCHING : 1. Stitching Carton
2. Now stitching /Gum Pasting Carton Or Metal Free Carton
3. DEPEND ON PLY: 1. 3 Ply Carton
2. 5 Ply Carton
3. 7 Ply Carton
4. DEPEND ON LINER: 1. Both Side Liner Carton
2. Out Side Liner Carton
5. DEPEND ON SIZE : 1. Master Carton
: 2. Inner Carton
Carton measurement:
FORMULA (1) = (L+W) (W+H)X2 in cm (Without Wastage)
FURMULA (2) = (L+W+6) X (W+H+4) X 2/10000 (Include Wastage)

PRICE = (L+W) (W+H) X 2 x Rate per Square Meter
= Rate/Pc
Example 1: Here,
Length : 30,
Width : 40,
Height : 20,
Ply : 7cm
Quantity : 20000 pcs
From (2) = (30+40+6) X (40+20+4) X2/10000
= 0.97 Square Meter.
Rate for 7 PLY = .60 USD [For GMTS Export Natural 7 Ply Used
5 PLY = .39 USD (.55X 5/7) (Less wt. Master Carton)
3 PLY = .23 USD (It is used as inner carton)

1 carton = 24pcs
24 pcs = 1 cartoon
So, 1 ,, = ———- ,,
So, 20000,, = ———— ,,
= 833.33,
= 834.00 (approx.) Cartoon
Total cartoon number for shipment = 834.00
Final Inspection
Garments are inspected by AQL. In this system samples are collected inspected by statistically from the lot size and will decide the lot of garments to be granted or rejected. AQL is mainly used in final inspection after garment making.
Acceptable quality level (AQL) sample inspection methods have been proven to be accurate over a long run. However, the quality level of merchandise at destination is sometimes lower than the per-shipment inspection results. This may be due to transport, handling, change in environment and/or reliability problems. Buyers are therefore advised to take this into consideration when deciding the AQL levels.
Defect Classification: The client defines the AQL and the maximum number of defective goods allowed in the sample size. Defects detected during visual inspection are usually classified within 3 categories: “Critical”, “Major” and “Minor”
Critical: likely to result in unsafe condition or contravene mandatory regulation or reject by import customs.
Major: reduces the usability/function and/or sale of the product or is an obvious appearance defect.
Minor: doesn’t reduce the usability/function of the product, but is a defect beyond the defined quality standard more or less reduces the sale of the products.
An Individual with defect(s) is called defective sample. In the inspection process, one defective sample is counted one for the most serious defect only no matter how many defects found in the said sample.
Clients can specify what points are minor, major or critical in a defect classification checking-list together with the inspection criteria and product specification.


In this industrialized age, environmental pollution is a matter of great concern. Surface water pollution is one of the elements of environmental pollution. Chemical processing industries especially textile processing industries are claimed to produce huge effluent to discharge in our rivers. A complex mixture of hazardous chemicals both organic and inorganic is discharged into the water bodies from all these industries, usually without treatment.
It is well known that textile mills consume large volume of water for various processes such as sizing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, finishing and washing. Due to the nature of various chemical processing of textiles, large volumes of wastewater with numerous pollutants are discharged every day. In Bangladesh most of the industrial units are located along the banks of the rivers and they do not use Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for wastewater. As a consequence, industrial units drain effluent directly into the rivers without consideration of the environment.
Setup an effluent treatment plant is mandatory for a factory today. Authority gives no permission of electricity and gas connection to a new factory without ETP.

Flow Rate

30 m3/hr




400-600 PPM


1000-1200 PPM


200-500 PPM


3000-6000 PPM

Oil & Grease

30-60 PPM


Dark Mixed



Outlet Effluent Parameters (Bangladesh Standard):

Flow Rate

30 m3/hr




< 50 PPM


<250 PPM


<100 PPM


<2000 PPM

Oil & Grease

<10 PPM








The raw waste water (Raw Effluent) from the process of the plant would be first screened through a manual bar screen strainer channel, where all particles with dia. > 5mm as well as small pieces of the fiber and floating suspended matters like polythene paper, polythene bags, rags and others materials removed by bar screen net. The bar screen consists of parallel rods or bars and is also called a bar rack. These devices are used to protect downstream equipment such as pumps, lines, valves etc. from damage and clogging by rags and other large objects. The bar screen is cleaned manually by means of rakes. The screening is disposed of suitably after they are de-watering. The screened clean effluent flows by gravity to an equalization tank.

Equalization and Skimming:

The raw waste water from the screen chamber is collected in the equalization tank, where it is equalized with respect to its characteristics and homogenous flow and an uniform pollution load as well as to make bacteria acclimatized the waste water is stored in a tank. High speed bottom fixed aerating device which blows air through the waste at a rate about 0.1 CUF of air per gallon of effluent. The rising air tends to coagulate the grease and oils and cause them to rise to the surface where they can be removed by a scraper mechanism. Besides, in order to accomplish a proper equalization of both varying loading and flocculating pH values. The equalization tank is designed for hydraulic retention time of around 6 hours. A substantial part of the COD will also be removed by the dissolved air flotation process.


Coagulation & Flocculation:

The homogenized effluent is than pumped to a flash mixing tank followed by a flocculation tank. Where added coagulants like lime (Calcium Hydroxide) and Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) for coagulation of the total dye particles. The basic idea of adding coagulant is to bring together all the suspended and dye particles so that they can precipitate out in a flash mixing and coagulation mechanism. Adequate quantity of poly electrolyte polymer solution are dosed to enhance the process of color removal by the flocculation process.

Precipitation and Sedimentations Tube Settler-1:

The flocculated effluent is taken by natural gravity in to the tube settler-1 from flocculation tank for precipitation of dyes and suspended particles. The flocs formed are removed in the downstream tube settler-1 by the help of tube settler media. The effluent will further flow by overflow system to a pH correction tank where requisite quantity of acid will be dosed and pH will be adjusted as per the requirement.


pH Correction:

The overflow effluent from tube settler-1 tank is than taken by gravity in to the pH correction channel for neutralization. 33% HCl acid is dosed for neutralizing the pH from around 10 to 7. The pH correction channel is designed for hydraulic retention time of around 10 minutes and is provided with slow speed agitator for thoroughly mixing of waste with acid. A pH indicator is installed in the tank for measuring the pH (optional).


Biological Reactor 1 & 2:

The neutralized effluent is taken by gravity in to the biological treatment aeration tank for treatment of organic matter to reduce BOD/COD aerobically. The biological reactor is designed on extended aeration principle. The aeration is provided with fixed type surface aerator for providing the required oxygen for the biological degradation of BOD and COD. The air is supplied by means of the bubble diffusion.

Tube Sattler- 2:

After aerobically treatment effluent flows by gravity to the tube settler – 2, the biological solids generated are removed from the tube settler – 2 by the help of tube settler media.

Filter Feed Pump:

The effluent from tube settler – 2 overflow in to the pressure sand filter and activated carbon filter feed pump. From here the disinfected effluent is pumped by means of the pressure sand filter feed pump to the pressure sand filter. The pump is normally operated in automatically with interlock to the level switch in the filter pump.

Pressure Sand Filter:

The effluent is pumped to the pressure sand filter. The filtration takes place in the downward mode. The filter is filled with a layer of graded sand media supported by a layer of graded gravel. The suspended matter in the effluent is filtered out in this unit, the effluent is then flown into the activated carbon filter.

Activated Carbon Filter:

The filtered effluent from the pressure sand filter flows into the activated carbon filter. In this unit to the feed flow is downward through a layer of granular activated carbon filter in which dissolved organics in the effluent are absorbed.

Treated Effluent Tank:

The effluent emanating from the activated carbon filter is collected in the treated tank. From this sump the final treated effluent is disposed off. As indicated before, this effluent is utilized for backwashing the pressure sand filter and activated carbon filter units.

Sludge Treatment:

The sludge generated in tube settler-1, tube settler-2 and biological reactor is taken to a sludge sump and pumped to a sludge thickener where sludge is concentrated. The thickened sludge from the thickener shall be pumped to sludge drying bed for de-watering. The de-watered sludge is formed into cake by natural dry or a centrifuge. The dried cake will be disposed in a tank. The overflow from the sludge thickener will be flow back to equalization tank for further treatment.


Ph Control



Quality Assurance

Opex & Sinha Textile Group has a quality policy for quality assurance. The quality policy of Opex & Sinha Textile Group is to manufacture and export different kinds of high quality readymade garments to its customers.

The objective of Opex & Sinha Textile Group is to attain & enhance customer satisfaction by providing competitive price, on time delivery of contracted quality and quantity of readymade garments with reliability and also to increase efficiency of work force.


To attain these objectives the management of Opex & Sinha Textile Group has decided to adapt the following:

  • To create awareness regarding customer’s requirements throughout the organization.
  • By providing training to develop efficiency/awareness of the employees.
  • To collect customer feedback regularly to know about their conception about the company and to take appropriate action timely.
  • To reduce the percentage of rejection/wastage to maximum 2% per annum.

Quality Objectives

The management and Employees of Opex & Sinha Textile Group works to implement quality in all steps of  their activity starting from selecting raw materials through all steps of productions to the ultimate finished products. To ensure quality at all levels they adhere the following objectives:

100% Follow – up customer feedback promptly.

Encourage every employee to suggest/recommend for improvements.

Prompt reply to customer complaints to build their confidence and satisfaction.

Minimizing the downtime for every machine.

To increase 5% export every year.

To decrease 8% customer complain every year.

To minimize 5% rejection of products every year.

Ensure timely shipment.

OPEX & SINHA TEXTILE GROUP has largest Quality control lab for maintain product Quality within production process.

Quality control lab

Quality refers to the ability of a product or service to constantly meet or exceed customer expectations. It is a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost and suited to the market.

Quality Control is a systematic and scientific system involving the application of all known industrial and statistical techniques to control the quality of the manufactured goods. It is the systematic control of those variables encountered in a manufacturing process which affect the excellence of the product.

OPEX & SINHA TEXTILE GROUP has all kinds of garments testing equipment, textile test machine, fabric tester.

  1. Fabric tensile strength tester,
  2. Fabric bursting strength tester,
  3. Fabric tearing strength tester,
  4. Peeling strength tester,
  5. Hosiery stretching instrument,
  6. Abrasion and pilling tester,
  7. Snagging tester,
  8. Flammability tester,
  9. Light fastness tester
  10. Color fastness tester
  11. Crock meter, perspiration tester,
  12. Launder-o-meter
  13. Yarn strength tester,
  14. Fiber strength tester,
  15. Moisture regain oven,
  16. Fiber tester
  17. Yarn tester
  18. Sliver tester
  19. Skeins tester
  20. Portable pH/ORP Meter

Digital Tensile Strength Tester:

Digital Tensile Strength Tester which are made using quality raw material. textiles, finished products such as yarns belts are known for their tensile strength and elongation. These properties raw materials determine ideal application of the product. Some of the specifications of our range is given below:

  • Testing Machines offer an affordable way to determine the tensile strength and flexibility of a variety of raw materials
  • These are based on constant rate of traverse principle where one end of the test specimen is held in a and the other in a screw arrangement
  • A load exerted on the stable grip which is measured by a pendulum dynamo meter
  • Fig: Tensile Strength Tester


    Due to the application of load, here the angular movement of the pendulum is converted into the movement of a pointer on a calibrated circular dial which indicates the load directly in kilograms or Newtons

  • Dummy pointer which indicates the maximum load exerted by the test specimen before it fails
  • load measurement range is further divided into three or four sub ranges which is obtained by adding or removing the calibrated disc weights from the pendulum
  • The stretch of the test specimen can be measured on a linear scale which is fixed on the frame of a tester that indicates the distance between the grips

Water Permeability Tester:

Product Details

  • Place of Origin                        Hong Kong
  • Brand Name                FYI
  • Model Number                       DW1320
  • Power                          Electronic
  • Usage                          Universal Testing Machine
  • Color                           Read
  • Voltage                                    220V,50HZ

    Fig: Water permeability tester


Vertical geosynthetic water permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tester (constant head method), this equipment used to determining products water permeability characteristics normal to the plane, without load for geotextiles or geotextile-related. It is a constant head test in uncompressed state.




  • transparent construction
  • Wide international accepted testing method
  • Lowest water head loss during a test;
  • ·         Equipped with water cycling utilizing system;


  • Specimen Dia                          52mm
  • Water head                             Adjustable (0-300)mm
  • Specimen thickness                 0.1-10mm
  • Temperature range                5-450C
  • Dimension                               850×500×400 mm (L×W×H)
  • Weight                                                170kg

Crock Meter Hand Operated:

Fig: Crock Meter Hand Operated


We offer a comprehensive range of Crock-meter Hand Operated machines which are made using quality raw material. Our range is used to ascertain color fastness for rubbing of textile fabric and yarn on leather under either dry or rub conditions. These machines are operated by a gear motor in which the arm moves in an oscillating motion on the teat specimen with a specified load & dia of the finger. Some of the specifications of our range is given below:

  • A rubbing finger is available with a flat base which is covered with a piece of standard white crocking cloth
  • These are help by a stainless steel spring clip to help it move over the test specimen in a oscillating motion
  • Each crocking cloth picks up the color lost by the specimen at the time of testing
  • A 3 digit reset counter is provided which enables to record the desired No.’s of rub and same is displayed in the digital counter
  • The test specimen is held by the abrasive paper with the help of acrylic plat which is mounted on the solid base
  • The equipment is painted with a metallic paint


Diameter of the finger ( for all fabrics & Textiles16 mm
Force on the finger ( for all fabrics & Textiles)9 ‘N’
Size of Crocking Cloth9 ‘N’
Dia of the finger5 x 5 mm
Force on the finger25 mm
Size of Crocking Cloth7 x 7 cm
Length of the traverse of the finger100 + 4mm
Digital Counter4 digit counter
Grating of stainless wire1mm. dia & a width of mesh of about 20mm.

Digital Tearing Strength Tester:

Use to determine the tearing resistance of fabrics. Friction pointer fitted with a brass lined hub maintains constant friction of the pointer and carries a spring loaded ball for increasing the friction. The Tearing Strength Tester conforms to ISO and ASTM standards.

Product details

  • Brand Name: FYI
  • Fig: Digital Tearing Strength Tester


    Model Number: YG033C

  • Place of Origin: Hong Kong
  • Usage: Textile Testing Instrument





Digital Elmendorf Tearing Tester is designed the ballistic tearing strength of military uniforms, canopy sails, tends, umbrella, hammock and other woven fabric, and sometimes is used to access the durability (or brittle) of fabric after resign finishing, additive or coating, etc.


  • Digital decoder technique ensures accuracy test result up to ≤±0.5%FS;
  • Measure tearing force automatically, no need to read gauge value manually, get fast test speed;
  • Support PC control, man-machine interface friendly, operate easy;
  • Support print test report, and data inquiring;
  • Pneumatic clamping, automatic cutting, reduce operation complication and ensure test result with high repeatability;
  • Choose related test unit to conform requirements of different test standards;
  • Alarm when within invalid measurement range, and clearly displayed on LCD panel;
  • Automatic corrections function for pendulum fiction damping to improve test accuracy.



Color Matching Cabinet:


These help to evaluate the color samples under various light sources as the color appears differently in different light conditions. Various specifications of our range is mentioned below:

  • The light booth color matching cabinet is used to stimulate different lighting conditions which helps to attain the objective assessment of color everywhere
  • Our color matching cabinet light booth offered by us creates a defined lighting condition which is independent of location and environmental influences
  • It is easy to compare standard and sample in color-neutral surroundings
  • These are used to check the color accuracy of raw material and various components procured from the suppliers by predetermining the color standards
  • It can also be used to maintain the quality during the production stages as well as for doubling the production by utilizing plant capacity during night.


Use Philips lamps and electronic ballast control, they make light more even, accurate, Overvoltage and over current protection.

Automatically time setting, recording lighting duration to assure accuracy of lighting

Offer various special lighting as user specifies

Lighting box

  • Artificial Daylight D-65.
  • A filament lighting
  • Tungsten Filament Light Domestic Light INC A.
  • Ultra Violet Black Light Whites and Fluorescent Dyes UVB.
  • CWF point of office lighting
  • Triphosphor Fluorescent Light Point of Sale TL-84
  • CWF point of office lighting



Digital Thickness Gauge:


Digital Thickness Gauge for Textile suits to determine the thickness of various woven and knitted fabrics under a certain pressure.

Model number:YG141D


Lifting up and down electrically; display thickness automatically by digital LED.

With continuous and single measuring function, improve measuring efficiency.

Pressuring time pre-settable, 10s or 30s, avoid error caused by manual operation.

Provide two units of thickness for choosing, mm or in.


Range of thickness           0.1~10mm

Measuring accuracy         0.01mm

Area of pressing foot       50mm2, 100mm2, 500mm2, 1000mm2, 2000mm2

Pressing weight                 50cN (2pcs), 100cN (2pcs), 200cN (1pcs)

Pressing duration                       10s, 30s

Power supply                              AC 220V 50Hz   40W

Dimension                                   410×160×300 mm (L×W×H)

Weight                                        25Kg

Spray Rating Tester:


Spray Rating Tester applies to determine the resistance of any fabrics, which may or may not have been given a water-repellent finish, to surface wetting by water. It is not intended to predict waterproofness, since it does not measure the penetration of water through fabric.


Main parts made by stainless steel, the instrument is durable.

Special designed specimen ring clamp, operate easy and keep the result more objective.


Glass funnel                                           Ф150mm×150mm

Specimen gradient                                 45°

Distance between nozzle and center of specimen        150mm

Diameter of specimen rack                   Ф150mm

Matched graduate                                 500mL

Dimension                                              500×400×500mm(L×M×H)

Weight                                                               5kg

GSM Cutter & Circular Sample Cutter:

Product details 

  • Model NO.: Z01B
  • Brand name: GESTER
  • Place of origin: China


Sample Cutter. To cut out circular specimens of fixed diameter rapidly, accurately and safely. Virtually any type material can be accommodated, including woven, non-woven and knitted textiles, carpet, paper and board.


Cutter body uses Aluminum alloy shaped by extrude molding.

Provided with screw to adjust height of blade, also fitted with lock bolt for safe operation.

Use GILLETTETM  Blade, Easy to change and maintain.


Available area             100 cm2 (Z01B), 11.3cm2 (ZB01KI), 154 cm2 (ZB01KII)

Specimen thickness    <5mm

Cutting depth              0~5mm

Specimen diameter     ø112.8mm (Z01B), ø38mm (ZB01KI), ø140mm (ZB01KII)

Instrument Weight      1.5kg (Z01B), 1.2Kg (ZB01KI), 2.0Kg (ZB01KII)

Electronic Balances:

  • Model number: XY-luck


Electronic Balances consists of an accuracy electronic balance with different kind of capacity and precision, 200g-0.01g/200g-0.001g/1000g-0.01g/5000g-0.1g/6000g-1g, which can satisfy the various requirements. And this instrument can connect printer through RS232C to printout test result. It is also applicable for count system of sliver, roving and yarn. Other capacity and accuracy is available on request.

Can be expanded function to yarn count system as specified.


Equipped with standard weight, easy to calibrate the unit.

Provided with weigh below hook, be able to measure mass of test specimen by be hang to the hook, such as determination of density, moisture content of yarn, etc.

With RS-232C port to support printer computer connection.

Can be operated by battery, 4*1.5V instead of AC power supply.


ModelXY 200-0.01200-0.0011000-0.015000-0.16000-1
Power supplyAC220V 50HZ (or specified by user)

Wrap Reel Hand Operated Tester equipment:

Product details

  • Brand Name Greenmac
  • Model Number YG(B)086
  • Place of OriginGuangdong, China (Mainland)
  • Power:AC220   50Hz   100w
  • Dimension:780*660*480mm
  • Weight:53kg
  • UsageTextile Testing Instrument


  • To produce skeins of yarn of a pre-determined length and number of turns for count and/or strength testing.
  • Used for testing the accurate length of yarns,the linear denstity,or the count of textile yarns and the strength of  skein.



Maintenance department

Maintenance Definition:

British Standard Glossary of terms (3811:1993) defined maintenance as:

The combination of all technical and administrative actions, including supervision actions, intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform a required function.

Maintenance is a set of organized activities that are carried out in order to keep an item in its best operational condition with minimum cost acquired.

Maintenance Activities:

Activities of maintenance function could be either repair or replacement activities which are necessary for an item to reach its acceptable productivity condition or these activities, should be carried out with a minimum possible cost.

Maintenance Objectives:

Maintenance objectives should be consistent with and subordinate to production goals.

The relation between maintenance objectives and production goals is reflected in the action of keeping production machines and facilities in the best possible condition.

  • Maximizing production or increasing facilities availability at the lowest cost and at the highest quality and safety standards.
  • Reducing breakdowns and emergency shutdowns.
  • Optimizing resources utilization.
  • Reducing downtime.
  • Improving spares stock control.
  • Improving equipment efficiency and reducing scrap rate.
  • Minimizing energy usage.
  • Optimizing the useful life of equipment.
  • Providing reliable cost and budgetary control.
  • Identifying and implementing cost reductions.

Types of Maintenance:

  1. Run to Failure Maintenance (RTF)
  2. Preventive Maintenance (PM)
  3. Corrective Maintenance (CM)
  4. Improvement Maintenance (IM)
  5. Predictive Maintenance (PDM)

Run to Failure Maintenance (RTF):

The required repair, replacement, or restore action performed on a machine or a facility after the occurrence of a failure in order to bring this machine or facility to at least its minimum acceptable condition.

Preventive Maintenance (PM):

It is a set of activities that are performed on plant equipment, machinery, and systems before the occurrence of a failure in order to protect them and to prevent or eliminate any degradation in their operating conditions.

Corrective Maintenance (CM):

In this type, actions such as repair, replacement, or restore will be carried out after the occurrence of a failure in order to eliminate the source of this failure or reduce the frequency of its occurrence.

Improvement Maintenance (IM):

Shutdown improvement maintenance which is a set of improvement maintenance activities that are performed whiles the production line in a complete stoppage situation. Engineering services which includes construction and construction modification, removal and installation, and rearrangement of facilities.

Predictive Maintenance (PDM):

Predictive maintenance is a set of activities that detect changes in the physical condition of equipment (signs of failure) in order to carry out the appropriate maintenance work for maximizing the service life of equipment without increasing the risk of failure.

Maintenance tools

Maintenance tools/equipment’sFunctions
  1. Adjustable wrench
Used for setting nut and volts
  1. Air suction
For cleaning machine
  1. Spanner
Fixed spanner for nut & bolts fitting
  1. Socket spanner
Handle system for nut & bolt fitting
  1. Hammer
To apply load where required
  1. Screw driver
To release any screw
  1. Punch
Used to fit any worn put shaft
  1. Lock opener
To open the clip of bearing
  1. Hack saw
To cut any metallic thing
  1. Outside calipers
To measure inside dia
  1. Inside calipers
To measure inside dia
  1. Cutting pliers
To cut thin wires
  1. Pulley key
To loosen pulleys
  1. Chain ton
To lift heavy load
  1. Welding machine
To join metallic parts
  1. Grinding machine
To make the smooth fabrics
  1. Tester
To test electric circuit
  1. pliers
To grip anything & cut anything
  1. star driver
Screw unlocking
  1. steel tape
To measure length, width & height
  1. chisel
To cut any metal
  1. L-key
For loosen & tighten the screw
  1. file
To smooth the rough surface

Machine maintenance Process

Daily maintenanceSewing machine
Monthly maintenanceCutting machine, Embroidery machine, Printing machine, Inspection machine, etc.
Yearly maintenanceBoiler machine, Power generator,

General machine Problem

The Following Problem to be checked

  1. Gap stitch                                            6. SPI( up date change)
  2. Tension                                                7. Set change
  3. Needle defective                                8. Measurement change
  4. Oil spot                                                 9. Part change
  5. Fabric change                                      10. Thread change

Chapter 10



Compliance means conformity of certain standard. PPC maintain a moderate working condition for their employees. Though it is well established project, there is some lacking of proper compliance issues.

List of compliance issues:

Here is the list of compliance in which some points are maintained fully and some are partially.

  • Compensation for  holiday
  • Leave with wages
  • Health register
  • Time care
  • Accident register
  • Workman register
  • Equal remuneration
  • National festival holiday
  • Overtime register
  • Labor welfare
  • Weekly holiday fund
  • Sexual harassment policy
  • Child labor abolition policy
  • Anti-discrimination policy
  • Zero amusement policy
  • Working hour policy
  • Hiring /recruitment policy
  • Environment policy
  • Security policy
  • Buyers code of conduct
  • Health and safety committee
  • Canteen


Drinking water at least 4.5 L/day/employee

Cup availability

Drinking water supply

Water cooler ,heater available in  canteen

Drinking water signs in Bangla and English locate min. 20 feet away from work place

Drinking water vassal clean at once in a week

Water reserve at least  once a week

Water center in charge person with cleanliness

Suggestion box register


Separate toilet for women and  men

A seat with proper privacy and lock facility

Urinal accommodation

Effective water sewage system

Soap toilet

Water tap

Dust bins

Toilet white washed one in every four month

Daily cleaning log sheet

No-smoking signs

Ladies /gents toilet signs both in bangle and English

Deposal of wastes and effluent


Sufficient fire extinguisher and  active

Access area without hindrance

Fire signs in both languages

Fire certified personal photo

Emergency exit

Safety Guard:


Metal glows on good conditions

Rubber mats & ironers

First aid box one

Ironers wearing sleepers

First trained employees

Motor/needle guard

Eye guard




Medicine issuing register

Welfare officer


Room temperature

Lighting facilities

Picture-33 : First aid box                   Picture-34: Fire training            Picture-35: Doctor



Industrial Engineering:

The main function of this department is to re- engineering the garment from the sampling stage so that it would be production friendly for the production as well helps to increase the productivity through machine layout, time and motion study.

In the sewn products industries we must continually ensure that we remain competitive and profitable whilst also striving to improve our personal and community’s standard of living.

Productivity improvements may be achieved through:


Industrial Engineering Department

–          To follow up the production process

–          Work process development

–          SMV calculation & Line target

–          Efficiency control

–          Time study

–          Capacity study

–          Workers training

–          M/C sequence lay out

–          Thread consumption

–          Operator Interview


Duties and Activities of a Work Study Officer:

  • Style details collect
  • SMV make
  • Layout make
  • Machine arrange
  • Attend P.P meeting
  • First week production plan
  • Line feeding
  • Work aid arrange
  • Method study (innovation) & take video & record
  • Time study
  • Line capacity find out
  • Bottle neck operation find out
  • Individually follow up bottle neck operation and try To increase production
  • Capacity & efficiency wise target setting & try to achieving
  • Line balancing
  • Motivation the worker
  • Maximum time stay in production line & try to solve any kinds of production related problem
  • Monitoring the production achievement hourly & daily
  • Loss time record
  • Overall, try to increases the productivity.


All work study- techniques are classified into two main groups the specimen bellows by typical:



Method Study

May be defined as:

The systematic recording and critical examination of existing and alternative methods of work to facilitate the introduction of more efficient and cost effective methods

The basic procedure:

Select: identifies the areas where results can be achieved these are usually where there are:

Bottlenecks        increased cost                   persistent overtime working,

Excess fatigue   safety hazards                   high labor turnover         high absenteeism


Record: Record though observation all of the exact details of an operation with regard to:

Machinery used               attachments used           operator method             quality specification

Handling system               work place layout            sequence                            position online

Examine: critically examine all of the recorded method details. Question each detail:

Can it be eliminated?                                                 Can it be combined?

Can the sequence be changed?                                Can it be simplified?

Easy motions characteristics

The methods analyst should strive to incorporate the following into methods:

Minimum:          Using finger, wrist, and elbow movements rather than making shoulder and body movements.

Simultaneous:    Using both hands at same time whenever possible.

Symmetrical:     Left and right arms moving at the same time in opposite directions.

Natural:               Free sewing movements are faster and easier then controlled movements.

Continues:          Continuous curve movements are better than straight line movements involving sudden or Sharpe changes in directions.

Rhythmic:            Smooth automatic movements must be encouraged.

Habitual: `          Movements that have become automatic as they do not require additional


Workplace layout:

The layout of a workplace impacts directly on the pattern of movements and consequently time taking to perfume and operation

When analyzing a method the following steps should be considered:

Step 1:

Sketch the existing workplace layout.

Sketch the shape of the work table noting any modification to the standard, e.g. extensions or cut downs

Sketch the position and clearly identify any work aids or attachments e.g. guides, reel feed etc.

Sketch in the position of products parts before they are processed; clearly identify the part of parts

Sketch where the parts are placed after processing

Step 2: analyze how to products parts are moved within the work place.

How part is first obtained                             how the operators holds the part

Where the part is move to                           how the part is presented to the machine

How the part is disposed of by the operator        where the part is disposed to.

Step 3:

Describe the method in simple movements; GSD is the best analysis tool for this.

The motions are typically:

Pick up




Cut/ trim & Place aside


Step 4:

From the list of movements the key points for attention should be identified

Finger/ hand position

Number of sewing bursts

Quality specification- tolerances, notch alignment, fabric position etc.

Special skill requirements


Step 5:

The critical examination stage:

Identify and eliminate excess movements’ e.g. checking, smoothing and positioning motions that are not fundamental to the method or company policy.

Identify and eliminate stretching or body movements.

Strive to achieve a method that contains only motions with “Easy Characteristics”


Work measurement:

There are number of different techniques that can be used to carry out work measurement within the sewn products industries, the traditional alternative to general sewing data is time study.

The skills required are:

  1. The ability, skill and experienced to read and operate a stopwatch.
  2. The ability, skills and experienced to assess the rate of working (performance) of individuals workers.


Time study:


This is the process by which we calculate the SMV (standard minute value) in “in process inspection”. There are two types of SMV such as estimate SMV and garments SMV. It is done by following formula,

Take a stop watch and take times for 10 times for a operation and finally calculate the SMV of this operation and production per hour.


Steps in taking time study:

A glossary of terms is contained in the manual so that the student may refer to it for specific definitions.

  1. Prior to commencement it is essential that there are commutations to all interested parties.

Manager’s       supervisor’s     workers representative’s       operators

  1. Ensure the prevailing conditions are suitable for a reliable time study.
  • The operators are properly trained and skilled – not trainees
  • The materials being used are of the correct quality.
  • There is sufficient work available for a time study to be completed without interruption.
  • The machine, equipment and work aids are correct and in working order
  • Ensure that health and safety rules are observed
  • The work place and working method meets the official special specifications.


  1. It is vital that all relevant details are recorded before the start of study e.g.

Study number  date     name of work study Eng.        Date of study   product type

Style reference           size      color    fabric type       trim details     quality specifications

Department    line/team/section machine type machine speed stitch density Attachments work aids.

  1. Before commencing the study break the operations down into elements so that observed assessment of rate of working and time taken can be recorded during the study.

After completing the study:

  1. Record the watch elapsed time and calculate the observe study time . Then calculate unaccounted time and watch error. The tolerance allowed – ± 2%
  2. Extend the observe elemental /operation rating  and times into basic time
  3. Calculate the average basic time for each element /operation cycle.
  4. Apply the appropriate relaxation, Delay and contingency allowances to the basic times in order to calculate the standard time either for each element or the operation as a hole.
  5. Where an appropriate some all of the elemental standard times in order to compile a standard time for the operation.
  6. As appropriate convert the standard time to the standard time allowed time by applying the appropriate performance factor to the standard time using the formula below.



Line balancing:

Line balancing is the allocation of sewing machine according to style and design of garment. It depends of that what type of garment we have to produce.


The Objectives of Line Balancing:

Line balancing is a main part of a mass production. These kinds of systems, regardless of being different in details, are workstations in a sequence. Row material is included in the line at the beginning or in the middle. Parts included in the system transfers from one workstation through the other and at the end leaves the system as a completed product. Transfer lines uses manpower very little when compared to assembly lines. The certain properties of Transfer lines are transfer and process of a product automatically through a line.



Objectives that should be gained balancing an assembly line are as follows;

  • Regular material flow
  • Maximum usage of man power and machine capacity
  • Minimum process times
  • Minimizing workstations
  • Maximum outputs at the desired timed
  • Reduce production costs

Importance of Line Balancing:

The importance of line balancing could be summarized as follows –

Good line balancing increases the rate of production;

This is the pre-condition for smooth production;

Line balancing helps to compare the required machinery with the existing one and make a balance;

It also helps in the determination of labor requirement;

Good balancing reduces production time;

Profit of a factory can be ensured by proper line balancing;

Proper line balancing ensures optimum production at the agreed quality;

It reduces faults in the finished products;

Line balancing helps to know about new machines required for new styles;

It becomes easier to distribute particular job to each operator;

It becomes possible to deliver goods at right time at the agreed quality for least costs.

Steps in Line Balancing:

Now-a-days, Standard Minute Value (SMV) is used as a tool for the line balancing, production control and the estimation of efficiency. In a similar way, the time taken to do a job for making garments like shirt/trouser/blouse/dresses could depend upon a number of factors like –

  • The length of the shirt/trouser/blouse/dress;
  • The number of stitches per inch;
  • The presentation of item;
  • The pricing of garments.

Planning Department:

When the factory gates a new order planning department needs to follow up some very important points those are given below

1. Before start sewing , select sewing line and fixed target to sit with IE & Production AGM.

2. Before start production ensure size set measurement repot.

3. After correction pattern given 1st line before ¾ days to give the other line.

4. Given schedule to all department like Sewing, Cutting, Washing & Finishing section.

5. Before start sewing ensure fabric and trim in-house status.

6. After start 1st line, ensure initial inspection within 3 days & before bulk cutting should not give others line.

7. Ensure to give production sample before 1 week to 1st shipment.

8. Ensure denim & over dye process garments production 5-7 days before from the shipment date.

There are some other aspects which Planning Department ensures. Makes a whole month’s shipment plane regularly follow-ups the everyday production rate and works on how to improve the production. They also make a plan about approximate production days needed for the individual style’s production & and make sure full production is complete in estimated time. Which style goes in which line, thoroughly check and quarry about the individual line’s production for the in time shipment, makes a whole planning about fabric in-house to sewing production line then wash to shipment.




Garment merchandising

Merchandising is one of the most important parts for garments trade. Without merchandising this trade never be fulfill. Merchandiser deals or handles all the things from buyer to production. He is the center for all the tasks. After getting an order, merchandiser calculate all the things, what he need to complete this order & make a nice plan by which he can do the shipment in time with buyer’s requirement. In factory level, merchandiser makes all the orders for accessories needs for an order like; fabric need, sewing thread, button, washing if necessary, carton, polybag, shipment arrangement etc. Actually merchandiser make looks on the whole progress. Normally, the production people are always try to do work in delay, thus many trouble can come for the shipment. But, merchandiser always makes a good follow-up to work in time with right quantity & right quality. In the other hand, merchandiser deals with the buyer’s about order approval & comments.

At last, we can say that, merchandising is the heart of garments trade. Without this garments trade is valueless.

Definition of merchandising:

The “Merchandizing” is known to the persons specially involved in garments trade. The term merchandising has been derived from the merchandise. Merchandise means goods that are brought & sold.

The term Merchandizing may be defined as: Person who merchandising the goods, specifically for exports purposes. Garments merchandising means buying raw materials & accessories, producing garments, maintaining required quality level and exporting the garments within schedule time. From the above definitions, we can say that a person involved in garments merchandising needs a wide range of knowledge & skill to perform his job successfully. The job itself is technical and general as well.

Merchandiser is data bus between buyer & seller:

Merchandiser is he or she, who builds up a relationship with the buyer and acts as a seller. He plays a vital role in an organization in a sense that he bears more responsibility than other in regards to execution of an order. The responsibility which he bears on the job is as follows:

  • He represents as a buyer to a factory.
  • He represents as a seller to the buyers.
  • he inspects quality as a buyer(from the buyer’s point of view)
  • He or she negotiates a price for the sellers
  • He looks at deal from sellers point of view
  • He looks into the business to flourish more in the future
  • He or she tries to offer the deal more competitive without compromising the quality
  • His or her object is to satisfy the buyers to progress more of the future business
  • His or her aim is to impress the buyer by means of:
  • Right products, quantities & qualities.
  • Right time & Honesty.

Function of a merchandiser:

When an export order is placed to a merchandiser, He or she has to schedule the following main functions to execute the order perfectly on time:

  • Fabric requirement calculations
  • Accessories requirement calculation (e.g. thread, button, label, polybag, carton etc.)
  • Sourcing of yarn & fabrics & accessories.
  • Possible date of arrival of fabrics & accessories in the garments factory
  • Costing
  • Garments production planning with the help of production DGM.
  • Pre –shipment inspection schedule
  • Shipping documents.

All the main functions, mentioned above are important but the procurement of the fabric & accessories are most important as there are many technical parameters involved in specification in this area. In most collection of fabric for the garments is to collect in time is a major problem. To procure a fabric we should clearly specify the technical specimen of the fabric during placing a fabric supply order, the following list of points should be considered in preparation of the contract before placing a fabric purchase order.

Types of Merchandiser:

1. Junior Merchandiser

2. Senior Merchandiser

Activities of a senior merchandiser in a factory:

  • Sample development
  • Price negotiation
  • Order confirmation
  • L/C opening
  • Opening summery
  • Sourcing
  • Material collection
  • Production planning
  • Production monitoring
  • Quality assurance
  • Arrange final inspection
  • Arrange shipment
  • Main task is ”production monitoring”
  • Collect “inventory report” from store
  • Swatch making ,sample making & getting approval from buyer
  • Arrange preproduction meeting  in order to prepare a schedule for smooth production
  • Place order to different production unit
  • Collect ”Daily Production Report &Daily Quality Report”
  • If any shortage in store, arrange locally.
  • Arrange final inspection

Activities of Junior Merchandiser in a factory:


Export order collect

Send to the Buyer

If Ok, Then making the different types of sample according to the buyer requirement


Negotiation with Buyer

Get Approval

Preproduction meeting

In house accessories & fabrics

Line balancing

Production continuing (follow up)


Inspection of the produced garments

Assembling with poly bag, cartoon Etc


Process flow chart of a merchandiser:


Qualities of a merchandiser:

  • Good knowledge about fiber, yarn, fabric, dyeing, printing, finishing, dyes, color fastness, garments production, etc.
  • Clear conception of the usual potential quality problems in the garments manufacturing.
  • Good knowledge of the usual raw materials inspection systems & garments inspection system
  • Knowledge of the quota system used in each of the production countries, duty rates, custom regulation, shipping and banking documentation etc.
  • Right consumption knowledge of various goods
  • Costing knowledge of raw materials
  • Order getting ability
  • Sincere& responsible
  • Hard worker

Negotiation with buyers:

The most critical work is the procurement of garment export order. Normally garment export order is found from the potential garment importers called garment buyer. Anybody wants to collect garments export order, should be able to convince the buyer. When the buyer is convinced about garment production, garments quality, garments costing and shipment ability of a garments exporter, he or she can think about issuing garments export order.

Without clear confidence among buyer& exporter from both sides, may be a risky business deal. If a garment exporter can continuously deal with only three or four buyer with buyer’s satisfaction, it will be sufficient enough to run garment production & garment export business smoothly round the year.

A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of negotiation, various parties and the way they communicate at various stages in the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation:

Letter of credit (L/C)

Business transactions usually begin with a purchase order placed by a buyer with a seller. It is very easy to understand, the order, or fax received from the buyer, is not something very reliable and secure. Although the order should be treated as an agreement binding both parties, the buyer and the seller, it is not a guarantee or an instruction for the seller to use to obtain payment for the merchandise shipped. For this reason, the “L/C” comes into the picture.

Letters of credit (L/C) is in general a conditional document extended by the bank in connection with presentation of exp[ort value. L/C pays a very dominant role in this matter. On receipt of this document from the buyer, the exporters become sure that they would obtain foreign currency after the peaceful shipment of the consignment directed by the buyer in the L/C. and for monetary transactions in this connection the negotiation banks stand as a symbol of surety for the exporters. Negotiating bank act on behalf of the exporter and is held liable or responsible for realization of exporter’s money from the L/C opening bank.

A credit may be advised to a beneficiary through another bank (the advising bank) without engagement on the part of the advising bank, but that bank shall take reasonable care to check the apparent authenticity of the credit which it advises.

All credit will always clearly indicate whether they are available by sight payment, by differed payment, by acceptance or bye negotiation. Moreover every credit must nominate the bank (nominated bank) which is authorized to pay (paying bank) or to accept drafts (accepting bank) or to negotiate (negotiating bank), unless the credit allows negotiation by any bank (negotiating bank). The nominated bank unless is the issuing bank or the confirming bank, its nomination by the issuing bank does not constitute any undertaking by the nominated bank to pay, accept or negotiation.

When an L/C issuing bank instructs a bank (advising bank) by any telegrams mission to advise a credit or a amendment to a credit, and intends the mail confirmation to be the operative credit instrument, for the operative amendment, the Tele-Transmission must state “full details to follow” (or words of similar effect) or that the mail confirmation will be the in that case, operative credit instrument or the operative amendment. The issuing bank must forward the operative credit instrument or the operative amendment to such advising bank without delay.

In spite of production of all related documents with the banks, the exporters however, became victims to some unpleasant situations which push them towards the uncertainty of realization of money. This results from the absurdity or ambiguity of L/C. An in most cases from faulty presentation of documents to be required in exports connection. So unless exporters have a clear conception and apprehension about exports business and be aware beforehand about all these documents, they would certainly face some major troubles, in per exports and post

Exports process, Exporters will after all have first-hand knowledge about L/C. they must be in the climax of knowledge. It is L/C  which act a medium of money during the time of execution of exports order and this give  secretly  the exporters that their dues would be obtained in due time.

In fact, in the whole exporter and import process four sides are connected. /in absence of any one of them the process cannot take full shape. These four sides are, exporter, importer, exporter’s bank and importers bank principally. The success of import and export business lies in the exchange of proper and accurate correspondence, any fault in these may cause in total disaster in whole importers and export business. So in order to avoid the ambiguous, absurd and understandable correspondence, both the sides are to exercise special and particular attention. They should remember that the success of export and import business depends mainly upon the careful execution of these things.

In export business, the first thing to do is to make sale contract with the buyer. And this may be made in the presence of both of the importers and exporter. In most cases this may not   be done formally. Yet, it plays a very significant role in the preliminary stage of export business. If this is not done formally, then exchange of letters, fax and email between them from time to time is taken for granted as the contract of the business. This may be styled as verbal contract. This also leaves importance in the business. These exchange documents are important for this reason that many a time this are required by negotiating bank of the exporters. Any loss of these may bring in fault in the business.

In case o9f verbal contact, verbal contract here refers to the contract which is formed through correspondences, exporters are to send pro-forma invoice along with all other details, including specification of goods, definite price and the date of shipment and payment terms. In addition this all other condition, if the exporters think necessary, may be placed in the form.

There are some methods of payment of export value. These are as follows:

1. through letters of credit

2. through advance T.T remittances

3. Deferred payment

4. C.A.D basis etc.

Of all the methods referred to above, letter of credit method is most popular and it is in fashion.

Letters of credit may be of different kind and nature:

1. Revocable L/C

2. Irrevocable L/C

3. Confirmed letter of credit

4. Confirmed and irrevocable letter of credit

5. Transferable or divisible letter of credit

6. Back to back letter of credit

7. Red clause letter of credit

8. Sight letter of credit

9. Unseen letter of credit

10. Revolving letter of credit

11. Stand by letter of credit

All letter of credit therefore, should clearly indicate whether they are revocable or irrevocable. In the absence of such indication the credit shall be deemed to be revocable.

A revocable L/C:

May be amended or canceled by the issuing bank any moment and without prior to the beneficiary.

In case of revocable credit, however, the L/C issuing bank is bound to:

a)      Reimburse a branch or bank with which a revocable credit has been made available for deferred payment, if such branch or bank has prior to receipt by it for notice of amendment or cancellation, taken up documents which  appear on their face to be accordance with the terms and conditions of the credit.

b)       Reimburse a branch of bank with which a revocable credit has been made available for sight payment, acceptance or negotiation, for any payment, acceptance or negotiation, for any payment,  acceptance or negotiation

Made but such branch or bank prior to receipt by it for notice of amendment or cancellation, against documents which appear  on their face to be accordance with the terms and conditions of the credit.

An Irrevocable L/C:

Constitutes a definite undertaking of the issuing bank, provided that the stipulated documents are presented, the term and conditions of the credit are complied with:

The full name of “L/C” i.e. irrevocable letter of credit which means once it is issued by the bank for the buyer and accepted by the beneficiary (the seller) , it cannot be cancelled or withdrawn by the buyer or the opening bank, unless with the consent of the beneficiary. In short, once the buyer opens the L/C form his bank to cover the goods he has purchased, he will have to pay for the goods when the seller ships the goods exactly as per as the terms stipulated in the L/C. Therefore, as far as the seller is concerned, the sooner he has the L/c on hand, the safer he is.

L/Cs can be opened in many ways, but in essence, it is a promise the buyer’s bank makes to the supplier, to pay home when he does certain things with evidence to prove. The things the LC opening bank wants the supplier to do are called “terms”. Therefore, when the supplier receives an L/C, he must read the term carefully to make sure he is capable of fulfilling them all exactly as they are written. If some terms are beyond his capable of fulfilling them all exactly as they are written if some terms are  beyond his ability to fulfill, he must point them out to the buyer and explain why he cannot comply with those terms, and request the buyer  to amend them by means  of an official amendment through the bank.

1)      Confirmed letter of credit:

This is such a credit for which exporter’s bank gives all Shorts of surety for the advance of payment.

2)      Confirmed and irrevocable letter of credit:

Which combines the quality of clause (2)and(3)

3)      Transferable or divisible L/C:

A Transferable credit is a under which the beneficiary has the right to request the bank called upon to effect payment or acceptance or any bank entitled to effect negotiation to make the credit available in whole or in part  to one or more other parties(second beneficiary)

A credit can be transferred only if it is expressed designed as “transferable” by the issuing bank. Terms such as “divisible”, “fractional” assignable” and “transmissible” and nothing to the meeting of term” transferable” and shall not be used, in that case the bank requested to effect the transfer (transferring bank), whether it has confirmed the credit or not shall be under no obligation to effect such transfer expect to the extent and in the manner expressly consented to by such bank. Bank charges in respect of transfers are payable by the first beneficiary unless, otherwise specified.

A transferable L/C can be transferred once only. The credit can be transferred only one the terms and conditions specified in the original credit, with the exception of the amount of the credit.

Back to back L/C:

This type of L/C is opened against the original master L/C.

Red Clause L/C:

In this credit, the export’s bank is directly to advance his dues even before they produce all export documents to the bank. And some clause is attached there. The manufacture must have maintained this clause.

Sight L/C:

It means when the shipper ships the goods covered by the L/C, and presents the document to the bank for negotiation, the bank (the negotiation bank) will credit the proceeds to the shippers account immediately after checking and finding the documents in order. When the documents are sent by the negotiation bank to the L/C opening bank, the L/C opening bank will effect payment to the negotiation bank immediately. such L/C usually say”AT SIGHT” which means “pay when the bank sees the documents”.

Unseen L/C:

It means L/C with time allowed for the opening bank to make payment of a foreign bill of exchange. Or, put in another way, payment from the L/C opening bank to the negotiation bank will only be made after a period of time as stipulated in the L/C. The length can be worked out between the buyer and the supplier, sometimes 60 days, sometimes 90 days or 120 days.

Revolving L/C:

It means that the beneficiary can draw money from such L/C up to the amount specified by means of documents, and after drawing , the amount drawn will automatically be replenished and is available for anther drawing another drawing and so on. 


Costing of garment is a very necessary and important task. In this factory costing is carried out by the merchandising dept. Firstly, merchandiser contacts with the buyer and collects order. Then he is provided a sample from sample section according to the buyer’s specification. The sample section also supplies the fabric consumption. Cost of the fabric is determined according to this consumption. Then he makes the costing of other raw materials, accessories, trimmings etc. He adds then all the production cost, transport cost, commission (buying house, C & F agent) and profit.

Documentation for shipment

Packing list


Commercial invoice

Bank account.

Bill of Lading.

Bill of leading:

A bill of lading (sometimes referred to as a BOL, B/L) is a document issued by a carrier to a shipper, acknowledging that specified goods have been received on board as cargo for conveyance to a named place for delivery to the consignee who is usually identified. A through bill of lading involves the use of at least two different modes of transport from road, rail, air, and sea. The term derives from the verb “to lade” which means to load a cargo onto a ship or other form of transportation.




Opex & Sinha Textile Group is a garments manufacturer & exporter. The STANDARD GRPUP Ltd. is committed to the best human workplace practices. Their goal is to continuously improve their Human resource policies and procedures through education, training, communication and employees involvement. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality garment in time. Working on new concepts in styling & content of the garment is a continuous activity in Opex & Sinha Textile Group with an objective to up the quality and the value of merchandise. To meet the commitments of quality and prompt delivery Opex & Sinha Textile Group Decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner for achieving their goal, Opex & Sinha Textile Group has recruited a high profiled human resource team. The production is controlled by skill persons. All of the decision makers of production sector in Opex & Sinha Textile Group are skill workers.

The goal of Opex & Sinha Textile Group is to get high production & to maintain the quality of the product at a minimum cost. The Opex & Sinha Textile Group is notable to produce all types of garment. I think their accuracy will increase to a maximum level. For sewing them is using modern m/c I think their product quality will be higher. For cutting they are using manual straight knife cutting m/c but if they use computerized cutting m/c their accuracy will increase & their efficiency will increase to a maximum level. I think if they improve the above things I think their product quality, their efficiency & their accuracy will be maximum.


Now-a-days Textile field becomes very competitive & the buyer wants 100% quality product. For this reason it is very important to know about the latest technologies in textile sector. To produce a quality product, as a textile engineer I must have a vast knowledge about the

production parameters & how to produce a high quality product. To accommodate the theoretical study with technical and practical things industrial training (Internee) is very important. In my training period I have observed that Crystal Composite Ltd. produce high quality fabric and fulfill the special requirements from the different types of buyers by following different internationally recommended standard method. In my training period I have learned many things such as different types of machines and their functions, techniques of productions and the management system. In this training period I have also learned how the desired product is made ready for shipment from the starting to the end i.e. from merchandising to the packaging. In this training period I have got an idea about the responsibility of different departments of the factory. So I think this industrial training will help me in future.