Quality is defined as the level of acceptance of a good or service. It is a very essential requirement for any kind of product. Every product should maintain the standard quality level. In this 21st century of globalization market are becoming more and more complex, that’s why every industry are facing a high level of competition for their business. So the product must fulfill the customer requirement. For this reason every product should maintain the quality level. For the textile industry and apparel industry, product quality is calculated in terms of quality standard of fiber, yarn. Fabric construction , color fastness, design and the final finished garment. Nowadays buyers are very much quality conscious. If it is possible to maintain a high Quality system of inspection policy, the buyers shall be motivated and more quality products can be made.The fitness for use concept can be applied to garment. For a garments to be fit for use provided its style acceptable.1. It must be free from defects such as stain, material defects, open seam, loose hanging thread, misaligned buttons and button holes, defective zipper etc.2. Must fit properly for the labeled size.3. It must perform satisfactorily in normal use, meaning that a garment must be abler to withstand normal laundering / dry cleaning / pressing cycle without color loss or shrinkage, seams must not come apart, fabric must not tear and so on.But maintaining an adequate standard of quality also costs effort. From the first investigation to find out what the potential customer for a new product really wants, through the processes of design, specification, controlled manufacture.
Quality is of prime importance in any aspect of business. Customers demand and expect value for money. As producers of apparel there must be a constant endeavor to produce work of good quality.”The systems required for programming and coordinating the efforts of the various groups in an organization to maintain the requisite quality”. As such Quality Control is seen as the agent of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control.
To maximize the production of goods within the specified tolerances correctly the first time. • To achieve a satisfactory design of the fabric or garment in relation to the level of choice in design, styles, colors, suitability of components and fitness of product for the market.Satisfactory quality can only be ensured through:
1. Knowing the customer need.
2. Designing to meet them.
3. Faultless construction.
4. Certified performance and safety.
5. clear instruction manual
6. suitable packaging
Satisfaction quality can be ensured from the customer’s point of view by providing:
1. Right product.
2. Right quality.
3. Right time.
4. Undamaged condition.
To ensure the quality level of a garment we need to observe some specific sector
1- Fault free fabric.
2- Shade matching of the garments.
3- Making the pattern as per buyer requirement.
4- All the different parts of the garment should have the perfect size.
5- Good stitching, seam formation should be perfect.
6- Additional accessories such as button, zipper, tag, level is in right position.
7- Packing and packaging.
Quality control in garments production are operated in the different sector 1. Cutting section2. Sewing Section. 3. Washing Section.4. Finishing Section.
Quality control stuffing:
Cutting Department Quality Stuff:
1- Q.C general manager.
4- Q.C. In Charge
5- Quality Controller
6- Line Q.C.
Sewing Department Quality Stuff:
1- Q.C general manager.
4- Q.C. In Charge
5- Quality Controller
6- Line Q.C.
7- Process Q.C.
Finishing Department Quality Stuff:
1- Q.C. In Charge
2- Quality Controller
3- Quality Supervisor
4- 2 Hrs Audit
5- Pre Final Q.C.
7- Measurement Q.C.
8- Iron Q.C.
Cutting quality control
Sewing quality controlFinishing quality
Store Q.ITrims and accessories inspection
Fabric relaxation and shade band Q.IQuality supervisorQuality supervisor
Shrinkage and GSM test Q.I
After iron inspection Q.I
Fabric inspection SR Q.I
Spreading quality controlMeasurement check Q.IProcess Q.I
Final getup inspection Q.I
Marker checking Q.IProcess Q.I
After cutting O.I
Hangtag & Barcode inspection Q.IProcess Q.I
Bundle inspection ram dam Q.ITwo hours audit
Ratio & size inspection Q.I
Output final inspection Q.I in side/Top sidePre-final
Cut fabric panel check
Different section of quality checking and its team
Different section of quality checking:
Quality checking is done by different section followed by a sequence to ensure the production of 100% good quality product. Step by step quality checking is done to identify every defect and each section whose identify the defects take action to solve the problem. The fabric inspection is done primarily. Then the fabric goes to the cutting section, in the cutting section quality checking is done by every part of the processing, the identified problem solve there. As the same process the sewing section, washing and finishing section do their work. As a result the good quality product can be produced which helps to fulfill the buyers requirement
The various Steps of Garments manufacturing where in-process inspection and quality control are done are mentioned below-
1. Fabric inspection.
2. Inspection in fabric cutting section
3. Inspection in sewing section
4. Inspection of washing section
5. Inspection in pressing & finishing section.
Activities to be done by Quality team:
Inspection of Fabric and Accessories:
To fabric which will be used to make the garments, matching with the approved swatch card.
To inspect fabric and accessories before start the processing
The following tests are carried on based on 4 point system. There are used a glass table. The fabric laid on the table and under the glass a light used to checking clearly.
- Shade matching.
- Different types of spot checking.
- Side-Centre-Side shade check.
- End-End shade check.
- Shrinkage Test.
Spreading Quality Control:
100% fabric lay spreading should be based on 4 points on a wooden table.
Cutting quality control:
Block check- taking 7 blocks of different size of any one cutting.Bundle check- 100% check of cutting no, bundle no, and size serial etc.Panel check – 100% of cutting table inspection.
After cutting Quality Report:
Sl.no Buyer Styler/ref.no Color Type of fabric Cut.no Cut.quantityty CheckedQty Name of parts Size Misscut M/c plies Pattern check Top/In maintain Defect Qty Defect Rate01 suns burry 403 Purple Pique 42 1260 126 Back XXL 1 OK OK OK 3 2.38%02 suns burry 403 Purple Pique 42 1260 126 Front L Not found OK OK OK 2 1.59%03 suns burry 403 Purple Pique 42 1260 126 Sleeve M 1 OK OK OK 3 2.38%04 suns burry 403 Purple Pique 42 1260 126 Moonxl S Not found OK OK OK 1 .79%05 suns burry 403 Purple Pique 42 1260 126 Placket XL Not found OK OK OK 2 1.59%06 07 08 09 10 TTL
All defects are rectified and pass.
Stitch monitors Record:
To check the stitch counting them twice in a day, such as- after starting sewing in the morning and after lunch break.3.2.6 In- Line Inspection:The garments check in every line everyday.At least 20 to 30 machine operator works under the quality inspector. He checks the garments in his line.3.2.7 Table inspection: This is the last part of sewing section. The table inspection is done in the final line of every sewing line. The garments when completed sewing then it goes to the table for inspection.
The garments check 100% at final inspection line before the product deliver.
Keep the record hourly after checking the product.
Initial finishing inspection: checking done prior to pressing of the garment at finishing room is known as initial finishing.
Final finishing Inspection: After pressing garments are again checked and passed for tagging and packing.
Fabric quality inspection
Inspection in reference to the apparel industry can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials like fabric. The quality of a final garment depends on the quality of a fabric when it is received as a roll. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective materials. Normally, we inspect 10% of the rolls we receive and evaluate them based on a four-point system. This way, we can avoid fabric related quality problems before it is put into production. Normally four systems are used for inspection of finished garments.1. 4 point system2. 10 point system3. Graniteville “78” system.4. Dallas system.But among them 4 point system is widely used. Now a short description of 4 point inspection system is given below.
The 4-Point System, also called the American Apparel Manufacturers (AAMA) point-grading system for determining fabric quality, is widely used by producers of apparel fabrics and is endorsed by the AAMA as well as the ASQC.
The 4-Point System assigns 1, 2, 3 and 4 penalty points according to the size and significance of the defect. No more than 4 penalty points can be assigned for any single defect. Defect can be in either length or width direction, the system remains the same. Only major defects are considered. No penalty points are assigned to minor defects. In this system, one should inspect at least 10 per cent of the total rolls in the shipment and make sure to select at least one roll of each color way.
Fabric defects are assigned points based on the following: Total defect points per 100 square yards of fabric are calculated and the acceptance criteria are generally not more than 40 penalty points. Fabric rolls containing more than 40 points are considered “seconds”. Formula: Points/100 sq yards = Total defect points/Total length of fabric in yard X 100/1 X 36 inch/Width of fabric in inch.
Finished Fabric Inspection Report:
When the fabric inspect, many types of fault has to check
1. Yarn fault:-Naps-Slubs.-Thick and thin place.-Dead cotton.
2. Knitting construction fault:-Loop-Oil stain.-Needle mark.-Sinker mark.-Hole.
3. Dyeing fault:-Dye spot.-Uneven.-Crease mark.-Softener spots.-Hole.-Adration mark.
Finishing fault: -Dirt or soil. -Hole
knitting fabric fault and remedies:
1. High yarn tension.
2. Less strength of yarn which breaks during loop formation.
3.Presence of mineral particle in yarn.
4. Incorrect gap between the Dial & Cylinder rings.
5. Yarn feeder not properly set.
Solution: 1. For holes problems solution use proper count of yarn.2. Yarn strength is important.3. It should be free from all kind of foreign particle.4. The gap between the Cylinder & the Dial should be correctly adjusted as per the knitted loop size.
Pin hole: Very small holes appeared in the fabric.
1. Due to break down of latch or bend.
1. Change the needle.
2. Different drive has to maintain.
These defects occur due to broken needle. The loop does not form in the wale.
1. High yarn tension.
2. Wrong cam setting.
3. Breakage of hook or butt. Solution:
- Defective needle should be change
- Needle setting should be right.
- Yarn tension has to minimize.
4. Needle must be cleaned before production of any new fabric
Stains appear as spots of grease oil or dyes of different color, in a neat & clean finished fabric surface.
1. If dying machine does not clean.
2. Grease & Oil stains from the unguarded moving machine parts like; Gears Shafts Driving Pulleys & Trolley wheels etc.
3. Fabric place on the dirty floor after completing the process.
4. During transportation.
1. To remove the oil mark the machine should be cleaned regularly and lubricants use carefully.
2. The fabric should place in the clean floor.
3. Make sure that the fabric is neatly packed in or covered with Polythene sheets while transporting or in storage.
Contaminations appear in the form of foreign matter such as; dyed fibers, husk, dead fibers etc. in the staple spun yarn or embedded in the knitted fabric structure.
1. Presence of dead fibers & other foreign materials, such as; dyed fibers, husk & synthetic fibers etc.
2. Dyed & other types of fibers flying from the adjacent Knitting machines cling to the yarn being used for knitting & get embedded in the Grey Fabric.
1. Rigid control measures in the Blow Room to prevent the mixing of foreign matters in the Cotton mixing.
2. Segregate the Spinning & Knitting Machines, with Plastic Curtains or Mosquito Nets, to prevent the fibers flying from the neighboring machines, from getting embedded in the yarn / fabric. Fly yarn: – This fault occur when the flying yarn get mixed with the yarn during knitting.Solution: The knitting machine have to clean regularly because the machine when process the yarn to make fabric lot of fiber drop as wastage and this can be mixed with the fabric
Fabric Cutting Inspection
Fabric cutting is the preliminary section in garments industry. The fabric cut into parts of garments here. This is most important section of garments for inspection because the fabric spread of 60 to 70 plies on the table for cutting. If there make any mistake for measurement in cutting it can cause a serious damage for many garments product. So it required skilled operator and high level of inspection.
Process Sequence of Fabric Cutting Section:
1. Fabric spreading: 60 to 70 plies of fabric spread on the cutting table. The fabric spread is very important. All the fabric measurement is kept same for from one edge to another edge. Tension of all plies will be same. Marking process:
2. Marking process: This is the second step of cutting section. The pattern parts place on the fabric plies and draws according to pattern measurement. Marking is done compactly for possible amount of fabric can save from wastage.
3. Fabric Cutting: After making is done the cutting process begin. High speed cutting machine cut the fabric plies by the operator. The operator should be skilled for this process because the fabric has to cut by exact marking measurement.
4. Numbering: When the fabric cut into parts has finished all the parts numbered by the sticker. This is done for all the parts of a garments can assembled by the same fabric. So it can minimize the risk of shade variation.
5. Bundling: after numbering the parts has to bundled and sent to the sewing section Prepared bundling card according to fabric lay report this card maintain.
1. Program No 2. Cutting No 3. Size No 4. Pies 5. Roll No
Quality Control in fabric spreading & cutting:
1. Fabric spreading according to correct alignment with marker length and width 2. Maintain requirements of spreading 3. Lay contains correct number of fabric ply 4. Correct Ply direction 7. Tension control
1. The dimension of the pattern and the cut piece should be same and accurate 2. Cut edge should be smooth and clean
3. Avoid blade deflection
4. Maintain cutting angle
5.4. Fault occurs in cutting section and its remedies: 5.4.1. Misalignment of plies: Plies misaligned, resulting in garment parts getting cut with bits missing in some plies at the edge of the spread.
Cause: 1. Different plies spread too tight or too loose.2. All the plies do not spread from the edge at same measurements.
1. All fabric should spread at same tension.2. Measurement should be equal at all measurement for the edge.
Less marker efficiency: less marker efficiency cause of increasing wastage and result a wrong cutting.
Check the marker is placed on the spread with the edge parallel to the selvage of the goods. It must ensure that no plies is creased, damage, or have overlapped parts. It must be ensured that possible amount of wastage can reduce.
Incorrect tension of plies: Improper tension during spreading can spoil the right measurements of the cutting parts
Solution: 1. Check the tension during spreading. It is very important for knit fabric.
Wrong cutting: This occur due to
1. Careless cutting operator
2. Deflection of blade.
3. Unsharpened blade.
4. Roller jams during cutting
Solution: 1. Blade should be sharpened.2. Regular checking of cutting machine 3. Should be careful when cutting.
5.4.5 Numbering mistake: The cutting parts numbered by the sticker to assemble the garments from same fabric. If operator misses any parts to number all the parts after from there will be wrong numbered.
Cause: Lack of concentration by the operator during numbering.
Solution: The operator has to be alert when he numbered the parts that no parts cannot be missed from numbering.
Sewing Quality Inspection
After finishing the cutting process the cutting parts come here for sewing. It is mainly an assembly section in the garments factory. Different parts of the garments joined together here and attach other accessories like button, zipper make a complete product.
6.2. Quality Control in Sewing Section: 1. Input material checking 2. Accessories checking 3. Machine is in well condition 4. Thread count check 6. Needle size checking 7. Stitching fault should be checked 8. Garments measurement check 9. Seam fault check 10. Size mistake check 12. Shade variation within the cloth 13. Wrong placement of interlining 14. Creased or wrinkle appearance control
Defects occur in sewing section and remedies:
Some place in the stitch line where the stitch does not formed :
1. Failure of needle to enter loop at correct time2. Needle deflection or bent needle3. Thread loop failure due to incorrect needle size for thread size4. Incorrect sewing tension in the needle5. Thread loop failure due to incorrect setting of thread control mechanism6. Flagging of fabric due to poor presser foot control
1. The sewing tension in the needle should be proper.
2. Perfect needle size for thread size
Needle breakage defect:
Scratch on the sewing product by the needle tip when several stitches are performed and needle is broken during sewing Cause:
1. Excessive tension in needle thread
2. Excessive needle heat, groove or eye blocked with melted fabric
3. Thread fraying at needle
4. Thread trapped at thread guide
5. Thread trapping at the base of cone
1. The needle has to change immediately. If the scratch on the garments is very big or deep the product should be rejected.
2. Use stronger thread or adjust tension.
3. Reduce Increase thread guides and reduce disc tension
4. The overhead guide should be directly above cone or the thread package. Also ensure that thread package shouldn’t get tilted during off winding.
Uneven (sleeve, armhole): sleeve or armhole edge fold has a measurement. Uneven means when the measurement is not same in all place. This occur due to careless operating by sewing operator
Solution: the uneven place seam has to open and again stitch with right measurement.
Main level not in centre point:
1. Buyer gives instruction where to place the main level. If it is placing in the wrong area this is a fault.
Solution: 1. Main level has to attach in the right place.
Oil mark in garments:
Oil mark occur from the sewing machine lubricants and spot is appeared on the garments
Cause: During the sewing operation oil can accidentally slick out from the machine and drop on the fabric and spotted.
Spot lifter chemical use to remove the oil the mark of the garments. At first the spot lifting chemical spray on the garments spot then air blown by the machine. The spot remove.
Side seam not in line:
Side seam are not at the side line. It may come forward or backward.
Cause: If the front and back part of the garments do not cut by correct measurement or operator make mistake of sewing the seam formation in the side come forward or backward from the side formation.
Solution: Cutting parts must have right measurement and oprator have to be conscious about that. Some times it can recover by stitching again or it can be reject.
After sewing when the fabric is puckered in the seam area. It is the wrinkle, or corrugation of the sewn fabric running across the seam
1. Fabric and / or thread instability
2. Poorly controlled fabric feed
3. Extension in sewing thread
4. Incorrect tension setting
5. Structural jamming or inherent pucker
1. Adjust feed timing and fabric control for maximum pulling of the fabric.
2. Check tension level in the thread, Sew with minimum tension possible. Always adjust bobbin thread tension first then needle thread tension.
3. Check if the coefficient of friction of the thread with metal is high.
It is the problem appeared when the two parts shade looks different in the garments
It is also may be a problem in cutting section where this parts made numbering mistake.
For the lack of experience or concentration of worker and if different parts are mixed by worker.
Shade problem parts are separate and actual parts are attached
If unexpected parts are shown by the garments from sewing area then this problem is occurred
Causes: For lack of experience or concentration of worker.Solution: The unexpected part is cut out precisely.
Stitch line uneven:
Stitch line is not straight position, it is displaced from its line.
Cause: This fault is occurred by operator.
The stitch has to open and again sewing.
Non matching thread: Some times when sewing is done, the garments and the sewing thread looked shade variation.
Cause: If garments color and sewing thread does not match with color
Solution: The sewing thread must have the same color with the garments. To ensure that before sewing the thread must check with the garments.
Washing Quality Inspection
Washing process of garment is done to create wash look appearance. After washing the garments create a new looks which seems the new touch of fashion.
-Washing technique create new fashion such as tagging, grinding, destroy, Blasting, whiskering, permanent wrinkle, deep dye, tie dye, p.p spray, hand crapping, p.p spoon zing etc. Which is also seems the best touch of garments.
-The main and important function of washing is to reduce size materials as a result the garment become size free and become soft hand feel.
-When these soft garments are touched then it seems to best touch of garments.
-To attraction the customers/Buyer by different types of Fashionable washing and market developments.
-Due to washing, shrinkage occurs in the garments. There is no possibility of further shrinkage of wash garments.
-Any dirt, spot or germ if added in the garments during manufacturing is also removed due to washing
7.2 Quality control in washing section:
1. Shade variation check.
2. Uneven check.
3. Maintain time schedule for each process.
4. Maintain exact temperature for each process.
Finishing Quality Inspection
This is the final section of the garments industry. Various types of fault check here. This is the important section where finally the product has to inspect and solve the defect of the garments.
Quality Control in Finishing Section:
1. Proper inspection of the garments including measurement, spot, dirt, impurities
2. Shading variation check
3. Smooth and unfold in pocket
4. In secured or broken chain or button
5. Wrong fold
6. Proper shape in garment
7. Properly dried in after pressing
8. Collar closing
Fault occur in finishing section and its remedies: Ironing problem: Some ironing problem occurred are giving bellow most 8.3.1 Shoulder up down: During ironing if the shoulder side is not placed correctly Causes: It is also the mistake of the worker.Remedies: Shoulder placed correctly and ironing again.
Bottom up down:
If top and bottom are not placed correctly
Causes: For the lack of experience or concentration of worker.Remedies: Bottom and top placed correctly and ironing again.
Crease if brought in the fabric and ironing. Causes: For the lack of concentration of worker if he ironing the garment on the crease area.Remedies: Remove the crease from the fabric and ironing again.
Poor folding resulting poor appearance: Due to poor folding the garments Appearance looks odd or not appreciating.
The garments should fold properly according to buyers instruction.
Incorrect packing: The packing should do by following instruction from the buyer.
Solution: The product has to pack properly
Different size sign are used in garment and lock pin label
It’s a mistake or lack of concentration of worker.Solution:
Place the lock pin which size are shown in the product
If the main label and hang tag barcode are not similar.
Causes: It’s a mistake of worker.Solution: Same barcode of main label and hang tag are placed.
Quality control plays a vital role in knit garments production. Nowadays buyer requires specific quality in all major parts of the finished products. What special in this report is that the information data and description very much objective & practical. We have tried to complete this project work as much we can. It will help us to maintain the quality of the garments in garments production.