Non-Formal Education

Non-Formal Education

 Introduction :

          Education is the most powerful weapon for fighting against poverty. A developing country like ours NFE is must to economic uplift and the poverty alleviation. Poverty is a probably the worst misfortunate afflicting in our country. A very large percentage of our population remains miserably poor even today. A direct outcome of poverty or quite likely still do not know how to read and write, steeped in ignorance; they are plagued by superstition, poor health and malnutrition and live in sub-human conditions in dark and dingy hovels. All the efforts that have been made to eradicate poverty. Thought total eradication of poverty from Bangladesh is a distant dream, yet the non formal education  can play a vital role to improve their quality of life and to help  them  to participate to productivity  in the  national  development.

Statement of the problem :

          Non-formal education means learning to change one’s behaviour to enhance the quality of life through work and values, without formal schooling. If the education through the non-formal approach enhances self-employment and economic productivity of people then the war on poverty can be fought and won in a constructive way. Many countries like Thailand. Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippiens have got a lot of economic benefit through Non-Formal Education (NFE). So it has been proved that economic implications of NFE are many, particularly for a country which has a vast population of adult illiterates. So the time has come for us to find out the role of Non-formal education in poverty reduction of Bangladesh. we also need to identify that how to make NFE more effective in poverty reduction.


          NFE is basically life and need based education which can convert on unskill unexperienced unilliterate vast population into human resource the formal education system, because of its rigid chronologically graded structure and inflexible nature excludes the poor from it’s advantages. In this circumstance as the alternative of formal-education (FE) it is very much necessary to evaluate the Non-formal education. So that we can determine the extent of it’s success and weakness at any stage of poverty reduction. It is the best way to bring lasting social change economic and self development.

 Objectives of the study :

i)       To know the overall situation of Non-formal education system in Bangladesh.

ii)      To study the need of Non-formal education.

iii)     To determine the role of Non-formal education in poverty reduction of Bangladesh.

Scope of the term paper :

          This term paper studies about the role of Non-formal education in poverty reduction. Mainly this study is based on the context of Bangladesh but in a very few occasion example of other countries are taken. This study includes information about NFE Programme of Bangladesh, nature of poverty in Bangladesh. fighting ignorance through NFE, national economy, functional literacy, self-employment etc. This study covers very small sample, which might not represent the over-all situation of Non-formal education and poverty reduction.

          How ever, through this term paper which is specially prepared as a compulsory part of foundation training course, future researcher could be encouraged.

Methodology :

          Mainly social survey method was used for collecting data. Where structured and open ended questionnaire many asking related to respondent’s socio-economic condition, NFE, and poverty etc. were used. Through informal  interview and open group discussion primary data were collected. Beside this some helps were taken from NGO’s.

          To develop a theoretical understanding and to collect secondary data upazila statistical report, relevant research report, other literature, newspaper and inter-net were used. Collected data analyzed by simple arithmetical men.


Non-Formal Education (NFE) is an important form of education. Without rigid rules and regulations of formal educational institution the education which increases the productivity of learner to improve his/her living standard is termed as Non-formal education.

The easiest and acceptable definition of non-formal education may be defined as “Non-formal education means learning to change one’s behavior to enhance the quality of life through work and values. Without formal schooling”.

NFE is the active process of community development overall. From above mentioned definition it can be said that, Non-formal education is a form of education system which is free from formal schooling and targets to teach the poor, how to improve the quality of their life through work and awareness.

          Poverty means destitution. It signifies conditions of life, limited by low nutrition. illiteracy, disease, high infant mortality and low life expectation. The world bank development report 1990 defines poverty as the “inability to sustain a minimum standard of living”. According  to Dr. Ali Akbar “poverty is such an oppressive socio-economic condition where people cannot meet the bare subsistence of living”. From above mentioned definition it can be said that, poverty is a situation of life where people suffer in malnutrition,  illiteracy, disease etc, and in able to sustain a minimum standard of living.

 Target groups  :

Non-formal education is not confined to any specific  category or group, but limitations of expertise and resources  world compete the  adoption of priorities. the target groups will be .

i)                   Thoes who never  went  to school.

ii)                Those  who dropped out of  schools.

iii)              Unemployed  youths in search of jobs.

          iv)     young  men and women in the rural areas.

iv)              youth in tribal areas .

 Overall Situation of NFE in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh, as a developing country with high density of population has got ample scope to expand its educational programs in order to transform the population into human resources through providing livelihood  skill training which will help the country to reach at the expected level of development.

Since independence, mass education program coutinued with sporadic efforts. It look an organized shape with official launching of the integrated Non-formal education programs (INFEP) in 1991. The main objective of this program was to build an organized nationwide  infrastructure. Activities of the program started in 1991 and ended in 1997. Under this program. Lalmonirhat and chuadanga districts were declared “Illiteracy Free” and a record member of 2.47 million peoples were provided with literacy services against 1.67 million as Targeted in the program.

The program succeeded to draw interest  among development partners regarding NFE vis-a-vis the huge  number of people from different walks of life. In pursuance to the unprecedented success of the project the Gov ernment in September 3,1995 established the Directorate of Non-Formal Education (DNFE)” as a permanent infrastructure of Non-formal education. Several Non- governmental  organizations like BRAC. Dhaka Ahasania mission.  PROSHICA evaluated the program. Besides Literacy delivery to 2.47 illiterate peoples.

 Non-formal education (NFE) Sub-System

          Non-formal education is defined as “any organized educational activity outside the established formal system that is intended for specific objectives and to serve an identifiable clientele” (BANBEIS).

          UNESCO states, “Non-formal education may take place both within and outside educational institutions, and may cater for persons of all age. Depending on country contexts, it may cover educational programmes to impart adult literacy, basic education for out-of-school children, life-skills, work-skills, and general culture. Non-formal education programmes do not necessarily follow the ‘ladder’ system, may have varying duration, may or may not confer certification of the learning achieved”.

The NFE policy framework approved and instituted by the Government in 2006 defines NFE, as “Non-formal education is a purposeful and systematically organized form of learning that generally occurs outside the formal educational institutions. It is designed to meet the learning needs of educationally disadvantaged persons of different ages and backgrounds, flexible in terms of organization, time and place and may cover basic and continuing educational programs to impact basic literacy, including life skill, work skill, general culture, and facilitates life long learning and enhancement of earning capabilities for poverty reduction. It ensures equity in access and human source development; it may or may not of varying duration.”

NFE sub-system in Bangladesh, as elsewhere, cover four types of non-formal learning by age ranges as shown in tabular form below:

Table – 1


(Age group 3-5 years)NFBE

(6-14 years)Adults Literacy

(15-45 years)CE and life-long learning opportunitiesIt can be providedIt provide a safetyProvide NFETypes ofat both family andnet and a secondcovering literacy,continuingcommunity levels.chance to un-life skills foreducationIntroducesenrolled andyouth and adultsi) Post-literacychildren to pre-dropout children(age group educationof primary school45), consisting ofii) Equivalencyand deals withand adolescentsthree levels:program.their health,(age-group 6/7i) Basic leveliii) Quality of lifenutritional andand 11 -14 years)ii) Middle levelpromotionpersonal, motor iii) Self learningprogram.and mental level,iv) Future-development  oriented program.needs.

 Source: UNESCO PROAP-1992.

The Recent Figure of NFE:


SI No.Name of the ProjectLearners age limitFunding AgencyDuration
1Pre-Primary4-5UNDP, UNICEF, NORAD & SIDA91-97



UNDP, UNICEF, NORAD & SIDA91-973Adolescent11-14UNDP, UNICEF, NORAD & SIDA91-97


Adult Education


UNDP, UNICEF, NORAD & SIDA91-975NFEP-115-24GOB,WB,ADB&SDCJan 96-2001 June




GOB, SIDA & NORADJuly 95-June 2001

7NFEP-3 (HTR)8-14GOB,   UNICEF,   SIDA   & DFIDJan 96-June 20048NFEP-4 (TLM)11-45GOBApril 97-June 20039PLCEHD-111-45GOB,WB,IDA&SDCJan 2001 -Dec 200710PLCEHD-3 IDBJuly 2001 -June 200711Gram Shika Milon Kendra11-45UNESCO1994-200012

Family             life Education (TA)-


Jan 1999-Dec 2002


Family            life Education (TA 2nd Phase)


Jan 2003-Dec 2004


 Source : Identification Mission on EC Education Support Under Multiannual Indicative plan (MIP) 2007-2010 in Bangladesh.

Under the ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME), the Bureau of Non-Formal Education (BNFE) has been working as apex body of Non-Formal Education. So, we agree with option 3 (Page 17), Capacity building, MIS program, Learning lesson, all of the components expertise and manpower is inadequate. If BNFE gets assistance form govt. and E.C we shall be able to attain our desires. NFE National Policy Framework is strong supportive of NFE activities. NPA-II, PRSP, NFE Policy all the government documents paid deep attention for poverty alleviation and to attain MDG target and EFA goal. Total literacy movement, centre based approach continued in Bangladesh under DNFE now BNFE as basic literacy. Due to absence of post literacy and continuing education that types of basic literacy could not sustain. But women’s involvement in the literacy, they earned awareness about their children’s enrolment, individual hygienic and food and nutrition.

A large number of people is still illiterates in Bangladesh. Primary School age children non-enrolment rate is 8-9 percent. About 45% children drops out from (grade I, II, III, IV and V each year) primary education. Besides, haor, Choar, Ethnic minorities, tribal’s disadvantaged families children and disable children cannot able to take primary Education properly.

At present two projects have been operating NFE activities at field level targeting 16 lakh under PLCEHD-2 and 2 Lakh under BEHTRUWC.

The above projects are not able to fulfill the MDG’s target. Massive programs are needed to achieve at least 50% adult literacy by 2015.

According to UNESCO Report at present 52 million people is illiterate. Under Bureau of Non-Formal Education (BNFE) will have to take massive Mass Education Programs to impart literacy to illiterate. At present the Bureau of Non-Formal Education has no Basic Literacy program. So our government has to pay attention on massive programs for MDG-2 goal and EFA goals for alleviating poverty and to eradicate illiteracy which also mentioned in NPA-II,

2003-2015. Massive Programs are needed under BNFE through MoPME. These programs are essential immediately such :

1.   Due to a large number of people is illiterate, BNFE has to take comprehensive Education Program under MoPME. A package program like + Basic Literacy + Post Literacy and Continuing Education + Linkage with job opportunity.

2.     Primary drop out, non-enrolment, missed out, left out working children are the target groups under Hard to Reach. But this program is in 6 urban divisions with 2 lac children (age group 10-14). This is quite inadequate program for NFE. This type of program should have to adopt throughout Bangladesh. Now HTR program provides Basic Literacy as well as skill training and job opportunity for a small group. For job orientation both national and international aspects, skilled manpower is needed. If Basic Literacy and PLCEHD program can be catered as per the demand of job market both national and international.

          ROSC project has been working with 5 lac dropout children (aged 6-11) for primary schooling as NFE aspect. The project target is very little in context of existing dropout children. So, BNFE can introduce Equivalency program after primary graduating through NFE. This primary graduate children may have two opportunities one is for enrolling formal education another is for continuing education. After receiving continuing education this group will be come skill manpower and will get job.

3.       According to Non-formal Education Policy, NPA-II early childhood care and education (ECCE) is under non-formal education aged 3-5. This program continued 1991-1997 in a small scale under DNFE now BNFE. So, ECCE program should have to introduce in large scale under BNFE through MoPME.

          As per the final report of MIP, NGO’s would work directly as umbrella of NFE activities Bangladesh. According to NFE Policy, it is obvious to say this is correct. BNFE is as an apex body for NFE sub sector.

          BNFE will act as supervising authority to some extend. BNFE and NGO’s can work together on NFE as public private partnership with kind approval of MoPME. BNFE Produced DPP, NFE subsector package program where 3 components are as follows : (a) Basic Literacy (Grade-111) (b) Continuing Education (Technical Trade Courses) (c) Establishment of 230 – UnionOpenSchool & ResourceCenter for Introduce the NFE Bridge Course for Equivalency between Formal and Non-formal Education (Pilot Program). Now this package program is in MoPME.

Non Formal Education Project-1 (NFE-1)

          NFE-1 was undertaken with a view to build a permanent NFE infrastructure in the country and to provide literacy services to 2.96 million people aged 15-24 years. The project was implemented covering 32 districts of Bangladesh. It began in January 1996 and completed in June 2001. Of the estimated cost of Tk. 2208.90 million GOB contribution was Tk. 422.81 million and project aid Tk. 1786.09 million. World Bank, ADB and SDC were the development partners of this project. A total of 2.96 million learners were covered. Significant achievements of this project, among others, included:

          i.     Construction of the NFE Bhaban in Dhaka;

          ii.   Undertaking   research   and   experimental-activities regarding NFE;

          iii. Gaining experiences on NFE program designing, planning, implementation etc. through national and international experts.

 Non Formal Education Project-2 (NFE-2)

          Non Formal Education Project-2 was undertaken aiming at providing literacy services to 8.18 million illiterate people aged between 11 and 45 years. It also intended to formulate a Post-Literacy and Continuing Education Model for NFE. The project covered 190 Upazilas from 31 Districts. The estimated cost of the project was Tk. 2800.00 million. It was implemented through the financial assistance from GOB, Sida and NORAD. It started in July 1995 and was completed in June 2002. Through various modes of deliveries adopted by this project, a total of 3.62 million people aged 11-45 have been made literate and the district of Rajshahi has been declared as “Illiteracy Free”. Other successes achieved by this project are:

          i.     Post-Literacy and Continuing Education (PLCE) was piloted through 23 NGOs on pilot basis and a model of PLCE program has been formulated;

          ii.    Research and experimentation on NFE have been conducted;

          iii.   Gaining experiences on NFE program designing, planning, implementation etc. through national and international experts.

 Non Formal Education Project-3 (NFE-3)

          This project was undertaken to provide literacy services to 0.35 million working children aged between 8 and 14 in six Divisional cities of the country. Duration of the project is January 1996 to June 2004. The estimated cost of the project is Tk. 805.51 million with financial assistance from GOB, UNICEF, Sida and DFID. Course duration is two years. The project was implemented following CBA mode. Till date, a total of 0.21 million working children and adolescent boys and girls have been provided with literacy service, while some 0.135 million learners are now included in the learning course. This is an exceptional project amongst all other NFE interventions in the country.

Non Formal Education Project-4 (NFE-4)

          Non Formal Education Project-4 was undertaken with the GOB’s own fund to cover the illiterate peoples who could not be covered through other NFE projects. The main objectives of the project were to provide literacy to 22.89 million peoples and to create employment opportunity temporarily for educated and unemployed young male and female. The project areas were 448 Upazilas from 62 Districts. Its estimated cost was Tk. 6829.96 million. This project has been implemented through TLM mode. Four districts have been declared ‘Illiteracy Free’ and a total of 9.23 million individuals have been provided with literacy services under the project. The districts are Magura, Joypurhat, Gazipur and Sirajgonj. Additionally as many as 0.328 million educated youths (both male and female) have got employment opportunity through this project. The project was ended on June 30. 2003.

The target and success of the projects are highlighted in the following graph.

Source: Annual Report – 2002-2003: Directorate of Non Formal Education, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education

Post Literacy and Continuing Education (PLCE) Program:

          As many as 18.48 million illiterate persons have been provided with literacy services under different projects while a total of 0.76 million learners are with literacy course now. As a result of the successful implementation of the NFE programs, literacy rate has been reached at 65 per cent as against 35.3 per cent in 1991. Achivement in litarecy rate is shown in the following graph:

Source: Annual Report – 2002-2003: Directorate of Non Formal Education, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education

          Previous experience shows that due to lack of proper literacy practice the neo literate who have been made literate under different projects do forget and soon become illiterate again. Post Literacy and Continuing Education is therefore necessary to check to relapse back into illiteracy. Although there was a built-in mechanism for some 3 to 4 months post literacy course with every literacy course, it seems insufficient. There are 735 Gram Shikkha Milon Kendra (ContinuingEducationCenter) in the country. as part of continuing education under INFER After completion of the INFER a total of 935 village education centers were being administered (including the earlier established 735 centers) with financial assistance from UNESCO until March 1999, after which, the centers were being maintained by NFE-2. It was revealed by the findings from different discussion meetings, seminars, workshops and research that PLCE courses in such arrangement were insufficient, ineffective and below the desired status to suit the needs of the present time. In most cases, the courses lack market orientation and fail to meet the demand of the learners. Therefore, they can’t succeed to link the learners with the market and employment problem remains unresolved. Which means that NFE or post literacy interventions just cannot achieve desired goals to uplift living standard of the learners. Considering these realities, the DNFE has undertaken three projects under the title “Post Literacy and Continuing Education for Human Development”.

 2.       Objectives and goals of NFE

          i)     Create of opportunities basic education and development for those who are deprived of formal education and are leg behinded .

          ii)    To impart vocational and technical knowledge so that they can be skill and blooming human resource .

          iii)   Easy participation of the people   of society   in the development activities.

          iv)   To remove illiteracy and development of total standard of living style .

v)          Spreading female education and making them consciences. For the cause of NFE parents take care of their children. As a result enrolment of child has been increased and their drop out has been decreased in the parimary education level. These are the positive factors of poverty alleviation.

 Financial Implications

The Government of Bangladesh (MPME) has received top most priority in the allocation of resources within the education sector, demonstrating government commitment in providing literacy through primary and mass education. Of the total government education expenditure 48.4 percent was allocated to PME in 1996/97. NFE still make up a relatively small percentage of the total, but is growing. The share of NFE in total education expenditure was helow 2 % in 1996/97. Actual expenditures may be lower. The Government expenditure on NFE increased from Tk 465 million in 1996/1997 to Tk 896 million in 1997/98.

Table-3  Planned expenditures for NFE (US S million).


 Source: Bangladesh Education Sector Review 11, page – 47.

 Table-4  Problem of the NFE learners.

Type of ProblemsFrequencyPercentage
Drop out of learners0840%
Migration of learners0630%

Source: Final Report of (BNFE) 2005-2006.

Over viewing the participation and contestability of learners its found that 40% of the whole learner are dropped out, 30% are migrated to another places, 20% of them are deprived and engaged for income due to poverty , 10% of them are fully un censuses of education.

Need of NFE : (Perspective Bangladesh)

          Bangladesh is situated to the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent. It has an area of 147570 sq kilomiters and population is 140 million. It has a population density of 880 persons per sq. kilomiters which is the lighest in the world. Most of the people of our country is illiterate. More than 47% people live under poverty. So over come this situation Education must be needed. NFE can fulfill the basic need of a man most of the audlt people, dropout children. The worst forms of child labour. Maid servant don’t know how to read and counting. So they are always deprived. So NFE is too much essential for the following reason:

          (i)      To preven

          (ii)     To Protect

(iii)           To recover childrens rights.

The role of NFE as a prime demand in Human Resource Development (HRD) Specially in developing country has been recognized by the developing planners. A large section of the population of the developing countries continues to illiterate due to unplanned growth of population.


a)  Non-Formal Education: Non-formal education is a purposeful and systematically organized form of learning that generally occurs outside the formal educational institutions. It is designed to meet the learning needs of educationally disadvantaged persons of different ages and backgrounds, flexible in terms of organization, time and place and may cover basic and continuing educational programs to impart basic literacy, including life skills, work skills, general culture, and facilitates lifelong learning and enhancement of earning capabilities for poverty reduction. It ensures equity in access and human resource development, it may or may not follow a “ladder” system, and may be of varying duration.

b)      Literacy: Literacy is the ability to read, understand, interpret, communicate and compute in verbal and written forms in varying contexts. It involves a continuum of learning that enables individuals to develop their potentials and knowledge base and to participate fully in community affairs and wider social and developmental context.

c)  Continuing Education: Continuing education is the provision of opportunities for lifelong learning beyond basic education (literacy and primary education) in response to the needs of disadvantaged individuals and groups to enrich their socio-economic lives.

The Specific needed are included:

(i)      To develop human resources of the country.

(ii)     To improve knowledge and ideas.

(iii)    To improve hidden skills.

(iv)    To achieve human rights.

(v)     To buildup leadership.

(vi)    To achieve women improvement.

(vii)   To prepare individual for selp-employment.

(viii)  To improve consciousness.

Functions of NFE

The contents  in areas of  science and technology  are many and are still increasing. Some examples of contents in science and technology  are computer operation courses, servicing  of the electronic equipment  repairing of electrical home appliances and the like. Courses in weaving, dairying, bee keeping, agriculture farm, making garden, fishery, poultry farm. sewing, dress making embroidery work, Tailoring, food preparation. T.V and radio mechanics/ servicing and repairing , health , hygienic  and nutrition  computer programming.

Exotic food preparation  in the  cities is another increased  demand. This is already  being met  by non formal  training  urban women wish to learn fancy cookery, Baking, Chinese dishes, party  snacks  and fast food have been the contents of  non formal classes, most in demand. For preservation of fruit and making syrups Jams and Jellies, publish cookery recopies, which  is  also  a form of NFE, in food preparation .

Importance of NFE

The main emphasis in non-formal  education  should be on programmes based  on contents which are direct by relevant to struggle against poverty and which activate the people to solve the various problems they face in their day to day. The contents of Non-formal Education are given below.

i)                   Information and  knowledge about environment

ii)                Knowledge about social, economic, scientific and technology changes in the midst of which  young, people  live and work.

iii)              Elementary, principles of health hygienic, child-care and nutrition.

iv)              Basic, skills in ready, writing  and arithmetic.

v)                Introductory occupational and vocational skill programmers to prepare. The learns for a job  or for  self  employment,

vi)              Creating Productive  skill

vii)           Family planning , activities  for personal development .

viii)         To satisfy general expectation

ix)              Many formals programs fail to provide the type of education which could help  the people  to solve the problems of the daily life.

x)                Formally educated person can continue their education for self development or higher professional  advancement  in a non formal way .

Poverty Alleviation : (by NFE)

          Poverty is probably the worst misfortune afflicting our country. A large number of our population remains miserably poor even today. A direct outcome of poverty or quite hugely, its cause illiteracy. Millions in  Bangladeshi still do not know how to read or write. Steeped in ignorance. They are plague  by superstition poor health and malnutrition and live in sub-human conditions in dark and dingy hovels, Education. Is the most powerful  weapon for fighting ignorance and illiteracy and to  bring about a lasting social change for a countries progress is measured by its level of education. A large number of  Bangladeshi live in pathetic condition. By acheiving  Non –formal education A large number of our population are engaged different profession and play a vital role for reducing poverty.

  1. Fancy and  exotic food preparations incites. This is already being met by NFE training. Urban women are increasingly wish to learn fancy cookery, Baking, Chinese dishes, party snacks and fast foods have been the contents of non-formal classes. Most in demand.
  2.  Some extension agencies of the Govt. and agricultural universities also conduct non-formal classes at some pleaces during a certain period of the year for preservation of fruit and making syrups Jumps and jellies many popular magazines. Especially women’s magazines publish cookery recipes which is also a form of non-formal education in food preparation.
  3. The contents in areas of science and technology are many and are still increasing. Some examples of contents in science and technology are :  (i) computer operation courses (ii) servicing of electronic equipment (iii) Repairing of electrical home appliances  and the like (iv) coursers in wearing (v) dairying  (vi) Bee keeping, poultry and  related subjects are also offered in a non-formal way.
  4. Farming and allied activities have the greatest need for non-formal education and training as agriculture provides employment to the largest number of people  in the rural  area . NFE can teach them to do their Jobs in a better and more profitable way.
  5. Another important training agency is sewing or tailoring (after completing NFE) a man or a women can easily do the Job).  Not only a women but men also in  cities or villages learn sewing, dress making, embroidery, work in garments or other boutique shop and easily can earn regular income.
  6. Tailoring has become a growing commercial venture  and women need to enter it in a professional way. A related self  employment venture for women would be opening a block and boutique  tie-dye  of fancy  and modern dress for women and children designed and made at home and play important  role in family or society.

          Unemployment is a national wide problem. The non-formal education  can prepare individuals for employment. Some have already found satisfying jobs as  a result of their non-formal training so the increase in the variety of non-formal contents. Oriented to employment is associated with absorption of trained  person in gainful employments.

Name of Occupation



Farming Dairy/poultry/beekeeping



Servicing/repairing of electronic goods/computer operation












 Among the 25 respondents 40% of them are working in the field of farming/dairy/poultry/beekeeping, 32% of them are engaged in servicing /repairing of electronic goods or computer operations, 24% are working in the sector of tailoring/block-boutique/cooking and the rest of them, that is 4% of them are working in other fields.

 Creating Productive Skills :

Many adults perceive their educational needs to be secondary to their economic needs. Non-formal education, therefore, needs to be linked with economic programmers, specially for the weaker sections. Unless the poor perceive the prospects of economic uplift  through literacy, they will not feel motivated  towards  education. Development of new skills, both in agriculture and industry, and participation in various crafts can help to achieve this purpose. The vocation oriented non formal education can be a tool for both  educational  improvement and the much desired  social change.

 For women home makers only :

Most of the persons for non-formal education would be women, specially of the weaker sections.

Illiteracy, ignorance and superstition are very high among women. Non-formal education, besides removing these has to work to widen their mental horizon and to develop social and productive skills. through better use of their leisure leading to self-employment or to some gainful employment  outside  the home.

 The government and non-government’s organization’s activities for  poverty reduction :

In a large country such as ours, with its vast number of illiterates, semi-literates, the educated unemployed, the big rural population and the rapidly multiplying urban poor, it is obviously necessary to initiate an overall open educational system with a wide choice for the  learners. Much more emphasis will have to be placed on the non-formal ways of education, particularly for those who are excluded from the benefits of formal schooling.

At present various government and non-government development organization are trying to develope the leg behinded  people of the society.  such as BRAC, Dhaka Ahsania Mission ,  PROSHICA, Plan-Bangladesh, etc a have  accepted community based many programmes  which have helped them to take part in active  national development.

 Impact on people :

A direct and visible factor which determines the status of NFE is its impact on people. The impact is the effect of the behaviour of the people brought about, in this case, through NFE. Observation of a wide segment of people would show if the life of the people has improved as a result of NFE, i.e., if the NFE has had any impact upon the people. The improve­ment can be moral, social, aesthetic, and economic.

The social scientists have studied the impact of various NFE programmers by using research methods. The beneficiaries of NFE are observed, interviewed and asked about the benefits. The observations, interviews, and questionnaires provide information about the improvements among the people. The survey can be conducted by using any, or all of the various methods of information collection.

There have been surveys on the impact on social and economic development of the people, though not much attention their normal and    esthetic status.   Shah (1978) conducted some studies on change in values, attitudes and motivation regarding literacy, family-planning, health and nutrition. She noted that people have benefited by adopting more desirable attitudes and practices in these areas as a result of NFE. People were also observed to retain their knowledge because of confirnuing.-.their education in a non-formal way.


The limitation of the study are mentioned as follows :

  1. Mainly due to time construction this study is not very informative, resource full, elaborate and analytical
  2. Allocation of time for the study purpose during the 98 Foundation Training Course of the NationalAcademy for Educational Management (NAEM)
  3. Limited  scope of data collection from the real field of the study.
  4. Appropriate statistical method is not applied for deciding sample size of the study in relation to population.
  5. Own cost involvement of researcher for the study, no support from NAEM.
  6. Limitation in degree of accuracy desire from the study.
  7. Limited scope to involve various types of population in regard to the key characteristics or situation being studied for the purpose.
  8. Mainly due to time constraint, this study is not very informative resource for elaborate and analytical .

Research findings :

Triangulation of techniques such as Observation, interviews through questionnaire and document analysis were used in the study. From data analysis it is found that

  • Most of the N.F. E. receivers had admitted that N.F.E had a great contribution in their poverty Reduction.
  • Most of the N.F. E. receivers have sufficient caloric, protein and vitamin intake.
  • Most of the N.F. E. receivers are able to get necessary heath an hygiene measure, suitable housing facilities and employment.
  • Most of the N.F. E. receivers have better access to income generation, education and self- employment.

In the document analysis it is found that N.F.E has played a significant role in poverty reduction of Bangladesh and other countries.

Recommendation :

†    Create awareness among the people.

†    Adult illiterate rate is too much high but education is essential to eliminate poverty, so teach this population, Non-formal education should be implemented in every corner of Bangladesh.

†    The educated people should play a vital role in spreading education among the illiterate people.

†    New project should be start for NFE.

†    The teacher who are engaged NFE should be trained up.

†    Remove the examination fear among the learner’s and practical theory should be apply.

†    Proper monitoring and evaluation should be ensured.

†    Job sector should be attractive for those who received NFE.

†    The government have to take more effective programme for NFE to reduce poverty.

†    Atmosphere should be congenial.

Conclusion :

From the analysis of primary and secondary data it is found that NFE has a great significant role in poverty reduction of Bangladesh. Indians have achieved much developments through NFE programmes. It is high time for us to follow them and should take wise and effective steps to implement the policy of NFE in every corner of Bangladesh.

Reference  list :

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Literacy  Bulletin – September/ 2005

Bibliography :

1)                Infrastructure planning for Non-formal Education

              Edited -by Dev Raj singh.

2)                Non-Formal Education, Theory and practical Comilla-Garvin karunarutne

3.       Non-Formal Education for Rural Women TA, Koshy.

4.       Some perspectives on Non-formal education – J.P. Naik.

5.       Non-formal Education- for All -Arvinda chandra and Anupama shah

6.       Administering – Non- formal education. for Jhai villagers – warren

          L. Mellor.

7.       Non-formal Education (NFE) Policy.

          Bureau of Non-formal Education (BNFE)

          Ministry of Primary and mass Education.

8.       Let there Be Light

          Directorate of Non-formal Education.

            Ministry of Primary and mass Education Division.

9.       Annual Report (BNFE)-2002-2003, 2005-2006.

Non-Formal Education