Internship report On Business Operation of Padma Textile

Internship report On Business Operation of Padma Textile

Executive Summary

Padma has grown from a cotton export house into the premier business group of Bangladesh. Today, Padma is considered to be at par with multinationals operating locally in terms of its quality products and management skills.

I recently have done my internship in Padma Textile, in which I got training from each of its department. The internship basically revolved around the product knowledge training. The system, the style of working & the commitment of the employees in Padma is really exemplary.

The difference between the success & failure is doing things right and doing things nearly right, & Padma has always tried for success & that is why it is known to be one of the leading organizations in Bangladesh. Irrespective of all these positive points of padma, I have noticed a few areas where the improvement can really increase the efficiency of Padma.

In this report I have given a very brief review of what I have seen during our internship I have mentioned all these as I have made an internship as according to the schedule. I also mentioned about the Textile industry in Bangladesh and vision of its industry. Then I have done a detailed SWOT analysis as well as PEST Analysis.

Then I have discussed about my learning in the whole internship that is all about the Textile Terminologies and process of the productions. I have made it possible to write each and every thing that I have learnt there. I have all my practical efforts in the form of this manuscript that’s the asset for my future career.

Literature Review

The tremendous success of readymade garment exports from Bangladesh over the last two decades has surpassed the most optimistic expectations. Today the apparel export sector is a multi-billion-dollar manufacturing and export industry in the country. The overall impact of the readymade garment exports is certainly one of the most significant social and economic developments in contemporary Bangladesh. With over one and a half million women workers employed in semi-skilled and skilled jobs producing clothing for exports, the development of the apparel export industry has had far-reaching implications for the society and economy of Bangladesh.

Several authors have analyzed aspects of the garment industry in Bangladesh. Of the various aspects of the industry, the problems and the working conditions of female workers have received the greatest attention. There are several studies including the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) study by SalmaChowdhury and Protima Mazumdar (1991) and the Bangladesh Unnayan Parisad (1990)study on this topic. Both of these studies use accepted survey and research methodology to analyze a wealth of data on the social and economic background, problems and prospects of female workers in the RMG sector. Professor Muzaffar Ahmad looks at the industrial organization of the sector and discusses robustness and long-term viability of apparel manufacturing in Bangladesh. Wiigton (2000) provides a good overview of this industry, especially the developments in the early years. One of the few studies on the Bangladesh apparel industry to be published in a reputed journal in the U.S. is that of Yung Whee Rhee (2003) who presents what he calls a “catalyst model” of development. The Bangladesh Planning Commission under the Trade and Industrial Policy (TIP) project also commissioned several studies on the industry. Hossain and Brar (2004) consider some labor-related issues in the garment industry. Quddus (2006) presents a profile of the apparel sector in Bangladesh and discusses some other aspects of the industry. Quddus (2006) presents results from a survey of apparel entrepreneur’s and evaluates the performance of entrepreneurs and their contribution to the success of this industry. Islam and Quddus (2006) present an overall analysis of the industry to evaluate its potential as a catalyst for the development of the rest of the Bangladesh economy

Orientation of the study

1.1-Background of the study:

Textile is an inherent talent and skill in this part of the world. At the outset of Textile boom during the end of twentieth century, Bangladesh stepped forward to take the full advantage of its tradition and work force with modernization approach. The result is inevitable with a great success to become one of the largest garment exporters of the world.
The Padma Fabrics launched its industrial journey back in 1985 and was involved in weaving of medium to heavy fabrics till 2003. Soon it became a reliable and quality supplier of greidge fabrics at home and abroad. During 80s and 90s Padma became a unique name in Fabrics market.
Padma, having a solid background of weaving experience and great support and inspiration from customers, moved forward in the beginning of the new century. Along with expanded weaving capacity the company made one of the largest dyeing & finishing mill in the country. With most modern machinery and skilled exspertise behind the machine, Padma was able to create a revolution in fabrics marketing to Europe and America. Padma Fabrics made a good name in quality and commitment within shortest possible time with serious effort and expertise from home and abroad.
There is no scope to be complacent with the success. In the context of highly competitive world of textile the growth and existence depends on quality and service to customers. There is no compromise on this point. Padma believes in quality, commitment and services which are the tools for growth of the enterprise in last two decades.

1.2-Objectives of the study:

By doing this project I have understood the business strategy of Padma Textiles Ltd and their marketing strategies. I will have a good understanding about the management and marketing practices of the organization. I have chosen this topic because our economy is very much dependent on textile industry and Padma is one of the largest conglomerates in our textile industry. I want to know their business strategies which will help me to implement in future. Moreover, by doing this report I will understand the basic difference between local companies and foreign companies. And it will also help me to understand the buyers’ psychology.

1.3- Problem Definition and Hypothesis:

Padma Textiles Ltd is doing business for years and so far they are able to satisfy their customers. But in the new era of business the dimension of customers’ need have changed and their perception as well. In order to defend that situation I need to measure the customers’ satisfaction from different perspective. So I would like to do my report on the business strategy of Padma Textile Ltd. And my hypothesis is
Better product quality of Padma is the key to satisfy its buyer/customer satisfaction.

So, Null Hypothesis, Ho= There is a relationship between product quality of Padma Textile and its customers’ satisfaction

Alternative Hypothesis, H1= There is no relationship between product quality of Padma Textile and its customers’ satisfaction.

1.4-Limitation of the study:

There are some limitations of the study. Time constraint is a big factor here. Because it takes lot of time to make the report more effective and suitable for everyone. Moreover, data availability is another big issue here because company does not want to disclose all the confidential information regarding sales and profits.

1.5-Methodology of the study:

By taking help of the primary data I will make this report more effective. I will collect data from the Padma Textiles LTD and also from different textile manufacturers. And it will help me to understand about the demand and supply of the Textile related products. Moreover, I will be conducting primary research which will be consists of the opinions of different employees who is working in that sector. I will be conducting the primary research through door to door survey, mailed questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion. And my sample size will be 50. And all the respondents are the buyers of Padma Textile Limited.

To make the data meaningful I have done Frequency and graphical presentation etc.
In order to prove the hypothesis I have taken some variables as independent variables.

The list of independent variables is given below:
– Product Quality: Here the perception of the buyers’ toward the product’s quality is justified.
– Product Price: Whether the buyers are satisfied with the price of the product of Padma
– Buyers’ Requirements: Buyer’s requirements has an impact of their satisfaction
– Product Design: It has an impact on buyers’ satisfaction.
– Reliability of Padma: If Padma is not reliable to the buyers the buyers would never be satisfied.

An overview of the company

2.1-Company information:

The Padma Fabrics (Pvt) Ltd.
Padma Bleaching & Dyeing Ltd.
Padma Weaving Ltd.

AII are under one umbrella. These are all private limited companies registered with joint stock company under the same ownership. The factories are located only 23 kilometer south east from the capital Dhaka in an ecofriendlyone where most textiles are located. Padma has a capacity of dyeing and finishing of 18 million meters of fabrics per year from light to heavy weaving. It has a strong marketing team supported by expertise from abroad in the production areas.

Our vision is product diversification, employment generation through expansion and to contribute in the national economy by earning foreign currency. To achieve the goal the group has got a set of expert professionals. In addition, we have a succession plan to go with sustainable expansion. Padma believes in quality, friendly environment and committed to social development.

To provide quality products to customers and explore new markets to promote/expand sales of the company through good governance and foster a sound and dynamic team, so as to achieve optimum prices of products of the company for sustainable and equitable growth and prosperity of the company.

Padma Group of Textile has three companies. The Padma Fabrics (Pvt.) Ltd., Padma Bleaching & Dyeing Ltd. and Padma Weaving Ltd. All are Limited companies under one umbrella of a composite Textile, registered with joint stock companies of Bangladesh.
The management’s top body is the board of Directors headed by the Chairman, Mr. Nazrul Islam who is an honorable person of Dhaka City having long business background.
The overall management is run by Managing Director, Engr. Ahmed Ali who has a 23 years background in running textile Industry. Basically an engineer started textile in 1985 and gathered multiple experience in the field of Textile. He is the founder of the company and very widely travelled person with lot of innovative ideas in textile sector.
The Marketing & production team includes highly experienced people from home & abroad with assistance from local technocrats.

2.5-Scope for Expansion of Padma Textile
Out of four industries of the group two industries namely Padma Bleaching & Dyeing Limited and Padma Weaving Limited are located at Bhulta, Rupgonj, Narayangonj. Total area of Bhulta industrial park is 80268 sq.m, out of which 33445 sq.m has already been covered by two industries and 46823 sq.m is still lying vacant for industrial expansion. Besides there is wide prospect for further extension of the Industrial Park as much as required. The industrial park is equipped with infrastructural facilities like gas connection for captive power generation, water softening plant, effluent treatment plant and internal road. In addition electricity connection is also in place as standby source of power.

2.6-Financial Highlights:
The total investment of the group is around 1100 million Taka equivalent to US$ 16 million. Based on operational result of the group the financial highlights as on 30.06.2011 are incorporated as under:

Authorized Capital 700.00 million Taka equivalent US$ 10.02 million

Paid up Capital 261.00 million Taka equivalent US$ 3.80 million

Fixed assets 1068.00 million Taka equivalent US$ 15.48 million

Term liability 752.21 million Taka equivalent US$ 10.90 million

Current assets 321.19 million Taka equivalent US$ 4.65 million

Current Liability 313.36 million Taka equivalent US$ 4.54 million

Profitability (Net profit) 113.30 million Taka equivalent US$ 1.64 million

Production operation

3.1- Spinning Department:
Padma Textile Limited has seven spinning units situated in Narayangonj. These units are equipped with the latest machines in all of their departments. In the spinning units the fiber is converted into yarn, and as this the quality of yarn is very important in the textile sector so spinning units have a lot of importance.
Grey Room
Generally the spinning mills mechanism is very similar. It starts from the mixing department where the bales of cotton are mixed and at that section the most visible impurities are taken out. This mixed cotton is then taken to the blow room by a machine. After going through a process it is taken to the card room for the next process.
After the card room the route is taken by keeping in view that whether carded yarn is the end product or the combed yarn. The combed yarn is of better quality and its process is a bit bigger than the other one.
For the carded portion the drawing breakers & drawing finishers are used to prepare the fiber to a certain level so that the process on the simplex machine can be carried out. On the other hand, in the combed portion, after the drawing breaker the cotton goes through the lab former, & after that it goes through the combing machine, where the comer noil and comber sliver are separated.
The comber sliver, after passing through the PC drawing & Drawing finisher goes to the simplex machine. The product that comes from the simplex machine is then taken to the Ring section where the yarn is to be made. Finally after passing through the auto cone the yarn comes in the packing department. In Padma the process of Ultra Violet Checking is also practiced to ensure the quality of the yarn.
As this process is very important so there are some common parameters on which the quality of yarn is judged. These parameters have been listed as below:

Important Parameters of Yarn & Fiber:
Important Parameters of the Fiber:
•Micronaire value
•Color grade
•Neps / gram
•Trash percentage

Important Parameters of Yarn:
•Yarn count
•Strength LCSP
•U percentage
•Thin Places
•Thick Places
•IPI (Imperfection)
Yarn Elongation (Flexibility)
•Single Yarn Strength
•Twist Multiplier.

3.2-Weaving Department:
Very similar to the spinning units, the weaving units of Padma are really very well equipped with the latest machinery to make the best possible product for the customer to gain the customer satisfaction.
Most of the machines in the weaving unit of Padma are of new technology & Padma has a very good check on the quality of fabric produced by its Quality Control department.
The end product of the spinning unit is the starting point of the weaving unit. When the cones of the yarn are brought to weaving unit, it is then taken to the warping zone in which the beams are prepared.
These beams are then taken to the sizing section where the different chemicals are applied to the yarn so that the weaving of the fabric can be done with the minimum breakage of yarn. After sizing the process of drawing inn is applied so that the yarn could be converted into fabric.
After the drawing inn the beams of the yarn is then taken to the Sulzer Looms so that the yarn is converted into the weaved product. When the greige is made, then it is taken to the inspection department, where a lot of quality check is done. At the first step the fabric is classified into two types, i.e. A grade & D grade.
The D grade fabric is either used in the B grade sale or in gathering of the fresh pieces. While the process of A grade fabric is a bit longer.
The A grade fabric after mending, goes to the checking machines, from where it is taken to the rechecking machines. After rechecking either the greige is rolled or folded & packed according to requirements of the buyer.
During all the above process, quality is the main purpose of the Padma people. The weaving units of Padma check the product quality as under:

Padma (Four Weaving Units)
Padma has one of the largest weaving setups in Golakandail, Bhulta, Rupgonj, Narayangonj. This Unit is equipped with the later Air Jet looms. The variety level of the product is very good.
In the warping section Padma has 5 Benninger Machines which are of Switzerland origin. In the sizing section the Padma has 5 machines. As far as the looms are concerned, Padma has 389 looms for preparing the greige. Out of these 389 machines 96 are Sulzer Ruti of Switzerland, while other machines are the latest Air Jet machines of Japan origin.
The weaving unit of Padma is specially very well known for its product in all over the country.

3.3- Quality Control Department:

First of all the people of Padma checks the quality of yarn before taking it into the process. Following are the yarn characteristics that are checked before taking it into the process:
•Count Testing
•Strength Testing
•Hairiness Testing
•Thick & Thin bases
At the warping section the following characteristic is checked:
•Breakage Report
When the sizing process is applied, the following two tests are applied:
•Abrasion Test
•Strength Test
After completion of the greige the g/sm test is applied so that to have the best customized product. Finally in the folding section checks are applied at every step of the folding process. The weaving units of Padma are known to be the best producers of greige product in Bangladesh.

During the production, quality control lab ensures that every work has done according to the standards of Padma. Following checks are made at different departments:
Checks while Printing:
Dry Cleaning
Chlorine Test
Checks after Curing:
Checks after Stenter Process:
Light Fastness
Washing (Optional)
Checks after Raising:
Quality check
The purpose of all these checks is to ensure the Quality of the end product.

•Crock Meter:
•Pilling Machine:
•Garment Washing Machine:
•Dura Wash:
•Wascator Machine
•Thumble Dryer
•Light Box
•Auto Wash
•Curing Machine
•Light Fastner Tester
•Air Permea-meter
•Data Color
Visco Meter
The above are the machine which is used in the Quality Control Lab to ensure the quality at every step.

3.4- Processing Department:
Processing Unit of every textile mill has a paramount importance because it actually provide the finish fabric product which is either sent to customer either as a piece good or as made up after converting the fabric into the required stitched product. The processing unit of Padma comprises of the following department:
Bleaching Department
Finishing Department
Printing Department
Dyeing Department
Folding Department
Quality Control Lab
Digital Design Studio & Engraving Department
Sample Room
Production & Planning Department
The operations of Production & Planning Department are to work as a bridge between the marketing team and the processing people, so this department has the prime importance.
All of the communication which is held between the processing & the export people is done through this department. The finishing department is also very important because it is the center of operations held in the processing unit.
A brief overview on the Processing capacity of Padma has been discussed as follow:

3.5- Bleaching Department:
The bleaching department of Padma is equipped with the latest machinery to compete with the market. Bleaching department has the following machines:
Singeing & De-sizing:
Water Mangle:
The above are the machines & a very brief overview of the machines. The bleaching department is like a back bone of the processing unit. After weaving mill, the fabric is brought to the bleaching department where it is prepared on the above machines so as to be prepared for the Printing or Dyeing.
The Quality Control people ensure the Quality of work in the Bleaching to fulfill the collective goal.
3.6-Printing Department:
The Printing department of Padma Textile Limited comprises of three rotaries, i.e. Reggianni, Zimmer & Stork. Along with theses three rotaries, the printing department has three sampling tables to fulfill the sample need of the customers of Padma.
There is a mini sampling machine for the sampling section to facilitate their work. The specification & general points about these rotaries are as under:
Reggianni Machine:
Zimmer Machine:
Stork Machine:
The Printing department of Padma is working at its best & producing really good stuff. After the printing from the rotaries, the route of the fabric depends on the dye class.
If the reactive dyes have been used, then the fabric will be taken to first of all Ager Machine & then Goller Soaper Washing, then to Stenter finish & finally to the calendar.
On the other hand the fabric treated with pigment dye is taken to the curing machine & from there it is taken to the calendar after the required stenter finish. Now in the following line, we’ll see the specifications of the Curing & Ager Machines:
Curing Machine:
Ager & Curing Machine:

3.7- Dyeing Department:
The dyeing department is a major department of Padma processing. This includes three machines. These machines have been identified & discussed as below:
Pad Thermosol:
Pad Steam:
Goller Soaper Washing:
So above is a bird’s eye view on the dyeing department of Padma.

3.8- Finishing Department:
Finishing department of any textile mill has a very significant importance because it acts like a hub in the Processing. Almost every fabric which goes through processing unit, it has to be passed through the finishing department. The finishing department of Padma Processing unit is famous for its quality work. It comprises of many latest machines which includes Stenters, Cylinders, Raising Machines & Sanforizing Machine.

Types of Finishes:
There are two major types of finishes:
Chemical Finishes
Mechanical Finishes
The finishes in which no chemical is used is called the mechanical finish, a very good example of mechanical finish is Calender Finish. On the other hand the finishes through stenter are known to be the chemical finish. The finishes are of the following types:
Normal Soft
Super Soft
Anti Pilling
Anti Wrinkle
Water Proof
Easy Care
Soil Repellent

Sanforizing Machine:
The Sanforizing machine is used for relaxing the shrinkage of warp. The machine possessed by NML has a workable width of 114”. It is basically used either on customer demand or in case of Garments. The standard is 5%. Padma has one Sanforizing machine in its processing unit.

Raising Machine:
This basically means to raise the fibers from the surface of the fabric. The machine possessed by the finishing department of Padma has a workable width of 114”. Padma has one raising machine in its processing unit.

NML has 2 Cylinders. The basic purpose of calendaring is to have the shine & to have better hand feel. These Cylinders are of two different lengths, the workable width of the Cylinders is 100” & 111” respectively.
The above is a brief introduction of the Finishing department of Padma.

3.9-Folding Department:
The folding department of the Padma has a daily production of 1,00,000m. The folding department is the last department of the Processing Unit. After the folding unit the fabric is transferred to GSC.
The folding department has two kinds of machines; the kind is rolling machine while the other kind is of folding machines. It depends on the requirement that which kind of machine would be used.
In the folding department of Padma latest 4 score method is used for the inspection purposes. Quality checks are made at every step of processing unit.

3.10- Engraving Department:
The Engraving Department of Padma Textile Mills Limited is equipped with the latest machinery along with the manual machinery for the process of exposing.
In the Engraving Department of Padma, the screens are generally prepared which are then used in the printing process.
Sizes of the Screens:
Following are the three repeats of screens which are used in the Engraving Department:
Similarly the widths of the screens are of the following five kinds:
The fifth width is currently not in the use of Engraving department and that are not in used in Padma now. The first four kinds are basically in use in the Padma.
The selection of the screens depends on the design requirement of the print. The most important thing which should be kept in mind is that only one screen should be used for one color that means the number of screens will be equal to the number of colors which will be used during the printing process.

1.Coating Stage:
The first step which is taken in the formation of the screens is to coat the screen with SCR 100. This coating is done for the purpose of blocking the meshes of the screen so that the required king of design can be made through the screen. The coating of the screen takes almost 8-9 minutes.

2. Heating Stage:
These screens are then heated in the ovens so that to carry out the process in the best possible manner. When the screens are heated in the proper way then they are taken to the exposing machines. The heat is provided to the screens so that to fix the SCR 100 so that the exposing stage should be started.

3. Exposing Stage:
PadmaTextile Mills Limited has two exposing machines, one of them is manual and the other is fully automatic. The automatic machine is the “wax jet”. The process of exposing stage is different for both the machines.
In the process of Manual Machine, it is quite a time taking process. In this machine, the presence of machine operator is very important; otherwise the time for each screen will be higher than the original one.
Earlier most of the work was done through this machine but now the major load has been shifted to “was jet”. Irrespective of these facts the importance of this machine is still there.
All sizes and widths of the screens can be prepared through this machine. Basically the manual machine is used for the word of design studio.
The “Wax Jet” machine is fully automatic. The work done through the digital design studio is done through this automatic machine. The speed of exposing through this machine is relatively higher than the manual machine because there is not such need of operator at every stage of the exposing.
The process at this machine does not effect because of the presence of the operator. The exposing is being done through the wax on this machine that is why it has such a name.
The mechanism of this machine is that the machine is linked with the digital design studio, so the operator can access any of the prepared design in the studio. Then the wax is applied on the screen in such a way that the wax is applied on that place from where the operator want to open the meshes. Then the lighting process is done i.e. the screen goes through high power light.
The result of this process is that the place where only coating is there and there is no wax, at these places the coating got fixed in such a way that the meshes are blocked in a better way. After this Exposing stage the screen is taken to the next stage.
Padma has ordered for “ink jet” machine which will enhance the production capability of the engraving department.

4. Washing Stage:
The screens are then taken from the exposing machines to the washing area. This is the area where the screens are washed so that the black portion can be washed from the screens. This is also called the Developing Stage. The screens are then kept on the light stand to see that whether the results are satisfactory or not. When the staff feels that the design is satisfactory then they send this screen to the heating machine for curing.

5. Curing Stage:
The curing is being done through an oven. The screens are kept about 20-25 minutes in the oven. This heat fixes the design on the screen so that after the final touch the screen can be sent to the next department.

6. Endring Stage:
During this stage the ring type iron is fixed on both the sides of the screens so that the screens could be taken to the printing department for printing.

7. Touching Stage
During the touching stage the final work is done. In this stage if there is any extra patch on the screen, then they are blocked with SCR52 so that the correct effect can be drawn on the fabric. This is the final stage of Engraving Department. After this step, the screens are then taken to printing department.
Design Studio
The design studio is a very important department of Processing Unit. The importance of design studio is because of the reason that without its right work nothing correct can be done. The presence of good design studio is very important for any good textile export organization.
The buyer sends the desired design in the following forms:
Through Sketches
Through Fabric Sample
Through CD
Now after having the concept of design, it is then the responsibility of design department to make the screen design, to select the sizes of the screen, to select the repeats of the screens and most importantly to make the films and designs so that to have the same designs during the printing process as required by the buyer.
In the digital design studio the work is being done through the latest machineries and software and dedicated and educated persons are there for the purpose carrying out the process. All of the work in this studio is done on the latest machines and the work can be accessed through the Wax Jet machine.
In the other design studio, the work is being done through the experienced persons. In that studio the guideline is the first thing which is made at the start. After this step, there comes a chain in the design studio such as to separate the colors up to making the and preparing the films which can be used in the engraving department.

3.11- Stitching Department:
Padma has One stitching units.
1: It is situated in Narayangonj
Narayangonj unit is a complete unit which is involved in all kinds of stitching.

3.12- Cutting Department:
The cutting department is the first department of GSC, which takes the fabric. The fabric, which is to be stitched, is brought from the folding department to the cutting department. In this department the fabric is cut according to the specifications & need. From the cutting department the fabric is transferred to the store from where the fabric is issued on the required floor according to the freezing plan.
The cutting department objectives
•Quality control
•Minimize Wastage
So cutting department was performing these responsibilities. The Cutting supervisor who shared the rules of cutting that is the foundation of the complete stitching department. Those are
The Process flow of cutting department is as below
Stitching Department (GSC)
Stitching department is one of the well equipped machines department in the field of the Textile in Bangladesh that’s why there are most of the loyal customers of the Padma from all over the world specially WALL MART, TARGET and TARGET. These are the major have chain of stores around the world.
724 helpers are daily wages working as quality checker in the whole stitching department. 400 stitching machines in the whole stitching unit. Every machine operator has a unique no to find out the any type of the fault.
The objectives of the stitching department are
The cost minimization and
To minimize wastage
Best utilization of time
Quality control by line checker

Types of stitching
Blind stitch
Over lock
Flat lock

3.13-Dispatch Department:
Dispatch department is performing two functions
Dispatch department is responsible to dispatch all types of Export after packing. It depends on the marketing department when it should be dispatched. Its not necessary to dispatch daily. Dispatch department is to pack and dispatch report preparation the prime responsibility is to make maid-ups dispatch Report.
Dispatch Department has a continual liaison with Marketing Department and to fix stickers according to the customer demand on the cartoons. The dispatch report also send to the head office and as well as customer. Maximum container capacity is to six containers per day. Work force is use for loading or shipping in container.
Container Type:
Twenty fitter lengths
Forty STD 8.5 feet length
Forty STD = 9.5 height.

3.14-Production facilities:

To support the factory a well equipped laboratory has been established with required testing facilities. The lab has modern equipment like Data Color processor (USA),
Padder, Steamer, Light Fastness tester, Tear & Tensile tester, Crocking & Perspiration tester etc.

Uninterrupted Power Supply
A full time uninterrupted gas based power generator is supplying 3.5 megawatt power to feed the whole production. This makes possible to run the industry round the clock and keep the modern computerized equipment trouble free.

Water Softening & Effluent Treatment
To ensure quality dyeing & finishing Padma makes sure of supplying soft water as per requirement for which water softening plant is in place. Padma Group always looks to the ecofriendly environment which is a prime requirement for human health. An Effluent Treatment Plant is in operation to treat the effluents and discharge clear water to the canal.

3.15- Product Range:

Yarn Dyed
Yarn Dyed Check
Yarn Dyed

Yarn Dyed Check
Yarn Dyed Check

Yarn Dyed Check
Slub Canvas

Herring Bone
Herring bone

Yarn Dyed
Yarn Dyed
Yarn Dyed Dobby

Slub Dobby
Yarn Dyed Check
Yarn Dyed Dobby

Fancy Canvas
Yarn Dyed Check
Slub Ribstop

Bedford cord
Yarn Dyed check

Bedford cord
Bedford cord


Camo Print Dobby


Ottoman canvas
Ottoman canvas

Panama canvas

Slub canvas
Slub twill

Yarn dyed check

Cotton Canvas
Printed Poplin
Printed Poplin

Printed Poplin
Printed Poplin
Printed Poplin

Printed Poplin
Printed Poplin
Printed Poplin

cotton_poplin cotton_poplin bedfford_cord

Marketing Operation

4.1- Marketing Strategy:
The past year has been tough for the textile industry as competition is steadily and margin of profits is becoming smaller day-by-day. Our competitors from Asia have come up in a big way with lower prices resulting from lower overhead, cheaper and better raw materials and machinery.
Countries like China, Indonesia, India and Bangladesh played an active role in the fabric market. Improvement in quality and production capability was the main area of concentration.
Market for Yarns and Grey fabrics was diversified to increase the customer base and reduce dependency on the Far East. In this effort business with Malaysia, Korea, Taiwan, UK and South America was initiated in case of Yarns.
A new spinning unit of 21,672 spinning has also commenced, which caters to the weaving units in Narayangonj.
In case of Grey Fabric market business was initiated in South Africa, North America, Japan, Italy, France, and Sri Lanka etc. Product range was also increased to cater to the differing needs of the buyers. Fancy and special items like Dobby Designs, Bedford Cords, and Cavairy Twills and stretch fabrics were developed which are being sold at premium prices.
Padma has constantly updated our machinery, replacing old machines with new ones upgrading the existing set-up, leading to better efficiencies and quality products.
Padma has established its name in new markets be creating specialized fabrics, designs and also by providing our customers with efficient service and excellent quality.
Leaving behind the traditional way of doing business and in our journey towards excellent it has consistently expanded its buyer base and explored the different markets around the world.
Keeping in view demand of the World market, Padma Textile Ltd pursued its strategy of value addition and reducing the dependency on Grey Fabrics and Grey Yarn.
Having the foresight to assess that in coming year’s value addition will be the thing of the future, Padma Textile Limited worked towards the achievement of its goal of future increasing its capability in value addition.
The export of processed fabric and made-Ups has shown market improvement as compared to last year. In Europe, Padma has made the most growth in the year 1999.
It has placed us successfully in the middle to upper end of the market. Our strength in Europe is the curtain division.
This included yarn dyed dobbies, engineered confections, different finishes and embellished products. The plan is to continue with this winning strategy and at the same time we are trying to find new clients in the high end.
We are also exploring business opportunities in countries like Spain and France where Padma has very little business at the moment.
North America is the star market for Padma; it’s a new market for it after breaking up the exclusive arrangement with our previous sale set-up. The quota is coming down in 2005 and we have started to prepare for it internally as well as for the external environment. Bedding is the bulk of the home textile business.
Padma is in the process of updating its machinery to cater the needs of the wider width fabric requirement for USA bedding business.Padma is also taking up the social accountability issues very seriously, which are so dear to the American consumers. Lot of big brand US companies have visited us and are discussing the possibilities of a joint venture.
The opportunities are limitless, we have to review and analyze them very thoroughly to associates with the right people in the long run. In the short term we are building a small amount of quota, which will give us recognition as a bedding supplier.
Padma is very strong in non-quota categories like curtain and table linen. These categories are best served with new product development (NPD). Padma will coordinate the effort for NPD by all markets to optimize results. Padma has achieved the highest sales in 1999-2002 for North America market.
On top Padma has developed more direct and closer relationship with our end customers. Oceanic has been our most lucrative and mature marker. In business terms it is our “cash cow” market.
Primarily due to being a non-quota market it had no real limitations in this market. Despite economic problems in that region, it has maintained our sales figures in the year under review. This market is a good design source for other markets, which is helping us to maintain our print volumes.
Middle East market is composed of South Africa and the new emerging markets like the UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan etc. Padma has dedicated new staff with fresh energy for the emerging market.
They have successfully broken the ground and we have very strong faith that these markets will give us good volumes in the near future. We are also targeting printed apparel business for the first time. The latest addition is the most ambitious Apparel Dyeing plant setup near Lahore, which has started its production.
The effectiveness and productivity of this plant will be further enhanced, as Padma Textile Ltd moves towards becoming a more vertically integrated organization.
Our dyed fabric has already established its name in the market. It is being exported to some of the leading brands of the world.
Padma has increasing its profitability by working efficiently, procuring better raw material and most importantly kept a very close association with its costumers.
It visits its business partners frequently and provides them with the best service possible. All of the above mentioned points led to strengthened relationship with its business partners making it very difficult for its competition to penetrate into its market share.
Padma has provided its staff with better working environment and facilities, which enhanced efficiency and out put.
At Padma, it is prospering due to our professional commitment toward excellence and giving the best results at all times and against all odds. Its marketing and production teams co-ordinance at all times and it focus remains on maintaining its position as the market leader in the textile sector of Bangladesh.

4.2-Marketing process:
Inquiry costing quote to customer
Check Grieg
Processing cost per delivery
Approval received
Lab dips/strike sample P.O received/Sales Contract sent
Grieg booking
Dying/printing program issue
Fabric processed
Shipment sample dispatched for approval
Shipment sample approved
Shipment dispatched

4.3-Commercial Department:
Along with the cutting section, there is another important depart named as commercial department. The working of commercial department starts from receiving the stitching programs. First of all, they see whether it is a new order or a repeat order. Then they issue a demand order through their Purchase Department. It is the duty of the commercial department to arrange all the equipment needed in the stitching unit for every bulk order. The products which are the responsibility of the commercial department includes label, fusing, polyester rope, stiffener, insert card, poly bag, stickers, size stickers, identification sticker, barcodes, security codes etc.
A freezing plan is made every month so as to maintain & systemize the production process. The stitching unit of Padma have latest and number of machines to fulfill the customer need & requirements. Total number of helpers in on daily wages in the whole stitching unit is 724. There are 400 machines in the GSC (general stitching company).
Quality is most important consideration while production in Padma. This is why the quality checks in stitching department are of very good level. In Padma Sewing Lahore, Acceptance Quality Level 2.5 & AQL 4.0 is under practice. The Padma Sewing Lahore is a certified for quality level from many organizations. This shows that the Quality checks in Padma Sewing Units are of international standards.
As the stitching department is the last department before the dispatch of goods so a lot of responsibility comes on its shoulders. There are sample rooms in the stitching units so as to fulfill the sample stitching requirement for different markets to ensure customer satisfaction. So the above is the brief overview of some of the Padma operations. Now we’ll discuss the chances of further improvement in Padma.

4.4- Export Marketing Department:
The export department of Padma is known to be the best marketing department in the whole textile industry because of the commitment and dedication of employees, the determination of work & the best management system.
Padma Marketing has a very strong liaison with their customers around the world. That’s why Padma has different segments on the basis of different regions like North America, Australia and Europe.
Every region has a different Export Manager and its whole staff. The marketing responsibility is not only to just sales and marketing it has also to find out new horizons and new ways. That’s why Managers visit to new Markets around the world.

4.5- Market Evaluation Model:
By taking help of Evaluation model I am going to discuss about the Textile industry of our country.

4.6- Porters 5 forces

1. Rivalry among competitors:
The market is very competitive. There are lots of competitors in the Textile industry right now. And to some extent the price war also exists among the competitors. But due to higher demand of the product the market is quiet normal. So in the textile industry rivalry among competitors is moderate.

2. Bargaining power of the buyer:
Previously there were very few textile product manufacturers. Foreign buyers got the textile product at a lower price compared to other countries. So earlier the bargaining power of the supplier was low and the foreign buyers did not want to argue too much with the manufacturer. But the current scenario is bit different. Now there is lot of manufacturers and the market is getting competitive. For this reason the bargaining power of the buyer is quite high right now.

3. Bargaining power of the Supplier:
Along with the manufacturers, the demand of our textile and garment product has also increased. For this reason, the bargaining power of the supplier has not fluctuated too much. And the bargaining power of the supplier is moderate here.

4 .Substitute products:
Substitute product does not exist in the market and the demand of this product is quite inelastic. So here the threat of the substitute product is very low.

5 .Risk of entry of new firms:
Not only are the local investors but also the foreign investors are very much welcome to invest in the textile industry in our country. And the government gives all sorts of facilities to the new investors. And due to higher profitability investors are very much interested to invest in this industry. For this reason the risk of the entry of the new firms is very high.

4.7-4P of Padma textile LTD:

1. Product:
Padma produces 100% cotton yarn dyed fabrics. Though Padma is a business to business firm, we need to categorize their product in business product classification. Padma does produce finish product.

Generic Competitive Strategy:

Overall Low Cost Leadership (Padma always wants to offer the lowest price for their average product).
Niche Differentiation
Overall Differentiation
Niche low cost leadership

Padma price their product based on the construction of the product. A fabric which has a higher rate of construction, yarn count, and good quality it costs more. For setting the price Padma keep an amount as gross margin then add the cost of the product with the gross margin.

Competitive Pricing:
In order to sustain in the market they follow competitive pricing. They set the price based on the price of the competitors. Though the market is getting competitive and Padma is bound to lower the price of their product. In that situation they maximize their revenue by bringing efficiency in their production system.

They also charge higher price for some of their premium product. For example Fil-a-Fil and Chambray are their two premium products and no other Bangladeshi manufacturer is as efficient as Padma to produce those products. For this reason Padma asks higher price for that products.

Factors impacting the pricing Situation:

Customer price sensitivity:
Here the customer is price sensitive and due to higher competition among the manufacturers, the customers are in superior position. So price sensitivity of the customers plays a crucial rule here.

Product Cost:
Product cost is the other factor here. Product cost influences the pricing situation very much. Padma charge the product price based on the production cost.

Competitors’ likely response:
For pricing situation it is also very crucial. If any company asks higher price for any product then the others overlap the situation and offer lower price to the buyers. Competitors respond very aggressively in this situation.

Legal and Ethical Constraint:
In our country there is not any legal or ethical constraint for pricing. So the manufacturer does not need to think about the legal issues.

Use of price in Positioning Strategy:
Instrument of Competition:
Padma uses price as an instrument of competition with their competitors. As I have said earlier, now Padma is one of the largest companies in textile industry. And by producing huge amount of product they gain economies of scale. In addition to this they always try to be efficient in their production system. As a result of that they achieve the quality to lower the price a bit. Eventually, without losing any profit they are now able to use the pricing technique as an instrument of competition.

Quality and Image of the product:
Padma asks higher price for some premium products and they have competencies of that product. And no other Bangladeshi company is as expert as Padma to produce that product. The higher price of that product shows the image and quality of that product.

3.Promotional Strategies:
In their promotional strategies Padma does sales promotion, Public Relations, personal selling, Direct and interactive marketing.

For Advertising Padma attends many different fairs in home and abroad. They attend fairs in different countries in Europe and America. They also attend many fairs in Bangladesh that are usually organized by BGMEA.

2.Public Relations:
They have very good relationship with most of the local garment manufacturers and they are also very dedicated to keep good relationship with the foreign buyers.

3.Personal Selling:
Padma does personal selling. Their marketing department is responsible to communicate with the buyers. And they always inform the new buyers about their products. Moreover, they always keep in touch to the old buyers and very keen to help the buyers by giving any sort of update and samples regarding their product.

4.Direct and Interactive marketing:
Padma performs direct and interactive marketing. They communicate to different buyers and they arrange formal and informal meetings with them.


•ISO 9001-2000:
Padma textile is certified under ISO 9001-2000 and so it meets the requirement of international standard and has a value in the mind of concern people.

•Strong Security System
Padma textile limited has a greater security system. There are different hidden security cameras which capture the all moments.

•High quality product
Padma textile limited using advance technology like they have modern machinery by which the quality of product produced is very high.

•Latest mechanized machinery.
They are using modern looms which they have purchased from Japan and France. And by using that latest machinery the productivity of the employees are very high.

•Tremendous market positioning
Padma textile is one of the pioneer textiles in the Bangladesh so it got the position in the mind of its customer. And being an old textile company people are loyal with it. Padma has a better position in the mind of its customers.

•Highly qualified and skilled management
The management of Padma is skilled they have hired the foreign graduate people in their management and also experienced people from all over the country.

•Highly Motivated Workforce
They are providing better pay to their employees and also bonus to them which motivate the workforce and they are doing well at work setting.

•Adequate financial resources
The owner of the Padma is one of the richest persons of the Bangladesh.

•Competitive advantage
Because it is an old textile and it has still keep its position in the textile market on all others competitors in the nation wide which is its competitive advantage.

•Equipped with MIS System
They have a management information system by which the departments and employees are connect with each other and they have a data ware house by which they can share their resources easily.


•High cost of production
The production cost is high because of not properly utilization of its resources.

•Centralized decision making
The decisions are made by the upper management which is weakness of the Padma because they have no proper idea about the situation and their decision can be not fruitful for the company.

•Weak image in the international market
Because of the other textile specialized countries like China, India etc the international image in the textile sector is very weak. Those countries providing cheap product to the market then Bangladesh’s textile industries.

•Small international market share
Although Padma has very strong in the national wide but it has small market share in the global textile industry due to the sound competitors like china, and India etc

•Less promotional activities
The advertising and promotional cost of the Padma textile is very low it can take advantage for more turnouts.

•Lack of benefits and rewards for the employees
Some facilities that other providing to their employees like Transport and medical fee etc Padma not providing to their employees because of which the productivity of the employees decrease.

•Organization can expand product lines
Currently the Padma not dealing in knitwear they can expand their product line by producing knitwear. They have plants and the extra cost for the production will be low for Padma. And they also have better market repute.

•Organization can reduce the cost by proper utilization of resources
If the cost of different matters which is not utilizing properly is controlled by the Padma management they can produce more in a few costs. It has to develop a further systematic process for controlling and managing resources.

•Organization can hire more well-educated and experienced person
They can take advantages by hiring more skilled people and they should hire young, fresh and energetic staff for their betterment.

•Buyer needs demands changes
Because of the research and development the design and the product of Padma is just satisfactory as compare to competitors in the globally and they are not fulfilling the demand of customer.

•Political instability
Political instability effects the Padma because of the quota system the company can be restrict by the government to export.

•Changed of government policies
Government policies are changing day to day so it is a threat for the Padma to survive in such a changeable situation.

•Globally Economic instability
Because of the economic instability the Padma affected a lot. Dumping system which is rising on daily basis in the world can create many problems for the company and any uncertainty in the world like 9/11 may affect also the overall export.

Analysis & Finding

6.1- Interpretation & Finding:

Fabric Quality:

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Very Good 63 63.0 63.0 63.0
Good 33 33.0 33.0 96.0
Bad 4 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: Here, the respondents were asked to grade the fabric of Padma in terms of quality. Among 100 respondents, 63% respondents said that the Padma fabric is very good in terms of quality. 33% of them said that the fabric is good enough and the rest 4% respondents said badly about the fabric quality of Padma.

Finding: This survey proves that the buyers are mostly satisfied because of the very good quality fabric of Padma.

6.2. Delivery Schedule Commitment:
Delivery Commitment
Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Very Good 47 47.0 47.0 47.0
Good 48 48.0 48.0 95.0
Bad 5 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: Here, the respondents were asked about the commitment level of Padma in maintaining delivery schedule. Among the 100 respondents, 47% people said that Padma has a very good commitment record in terms of maintaining timely delivery. The highest rate of 48% people said that Padma maintains overall good delivery schedule. Only 5% people had a bad experience with Padma in terms of delivery schedule of bulk goods.

Finding: This survey proves that Padma’s buyers have a satisfactory level of experience with its quality delivery commitment.

6.3. Fabric Price:
Fabric Price
Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Very High 26 26.0 26.0 26.0
Reasonable 74 74.0 74.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: Here, the respondents were asked about their perception regarding the fabric price of Padma. Among 100 buyers, 26% of them said that the price is very high. The rest 74% buyers perceived the price as reasonable. Surprisingly, no one said that the fabric price of Padma is low.

Finding: This survey proves that most of the buyers perceive that the fabric is reasonable considering its fabric quality and they are satisfied with it.

6.4. Pattern Design:

Interpretation: Here, the customers were asked to grade the pattern design of the Y/D fabrics of Padma. Among 100 customers, a high rate of 72% buyers said that their design is very good quality. 18% people said that it is overall good. Only 10% of the customers said badly about the pattern design.

Finding: This survey proves that the pattern design of the Padma fabrics is very good and customers are very satisfied. The designer designs all the patterns at his design studio.

6.5. Response to Inquiries:

Response to Queries
Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Very Fast 68 68.0 68.0 68.0
Fast 30 30.0 30.0 98.0
Slow 2 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: 100 buyers were asked that how fast the sales & marketing personnel of Padma respond to their queries. As high as 68% of them said that they respond very fast and effectively. 30% of them said that they are fast enough. Only 2% of the buyers had a bad experience and said that they respond slowly to their queries.

Finding: This survey proves that the sales & marketing personnel are very efficient in responding to customer queries and customers are also very satisfied with them.

6.6. Compensation:

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Always 29 29.0 29.0 29.0
Sometimes 61 61.0 61.0 90.0
Never 10 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: Here, the buyers were asked if Padma provides compensation for any fabric fault or shortage or delay in delivery schedule. Among 100 respondents, 29% people said that they always get compensation whenever there is any fault. 61% of them said they do get compensation but not always. 10% people said that they never get any sort of compensation whatsoever.

Finding: This survey proves that buyers of Padma are more or less happy with the compensation policy of Padma, but not completely satisfies as because they always demand full compensation.

6.7. Communication:

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Very Good 44 44.0 44.0 44.0
Good 55 55.0 55.0 99.0
Bad 1 1.0 1.0 100.0

Interpretation: 100 random buyers of Padma wee asked about how well the sales & marketing personnel of Padma communicate with them, via phone, e-mail, or in person. 44% of them responded that their communication proficiency is very good. 55% people commented overall good on their communication process. Only 1% buyer had a bad experience with Padma regarding communication.

Finding: This survey proves that most of the buyers of Padma have a good experience regarding communication with the sales & marketing personnel and buyers are satisfied with it.

6.8. On-time Samples:

On Time Sample
Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Always 39 39.0 39.0 39.0
Sometimes 52 52.0 52.0 91.0
Never 9 9.0 9.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: Getting samples on time is very crucial for buyers because they also need to make garment samples on time and present those to their end buyers in order to grab orders.
Among 100 respondents, 39% people said that they always get samples on time from Padma 52% people said that they sometimes get samples on time, not always. 9% people commented that they never get samples on time, which is a very bad sign.

Finding: This survey tells that buyers are not much happy with the sampling schedule of Padma. So, they need to work on this.

6.9. Bulk-Sample Matching:

Bulk-Sample Matching
Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Exactly 45 45.0 45.0 45.0
Moderately 55 55.0 55.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: It is very important to look after that final bulk fabric matches exactly with the sample the sample that was provided before taking the order from the buyer. Otherwise the buyer demands compensation for this fabric fault.
Among 100 respondents, 45% people said that the bulk fabrics matches exactly with the sample provided. The rest 55% people said that the bulk matches moderately with the sample fabric, not exactly. Amazingly, no buyers said that the bulk doesn’t match at all with the sample.

Finding: This survey proves that the buyers are more or less satisfied with the matching of sample and bulk fabric.

6.10. Production Lead Time:

Lead Time
Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Very Long 42 42.0 42.0 42.0
Long 58 58.0 58.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: Buyers or customers place orders only if they can agree with the production lead time of Padma because they also have to maintain a certain led time to produce final garments.
Among 100 respondents, 42% people said that the production lead time at Padma is very long. The rest 58% people commented that this lead time is long at Padma. No people said that the lead time is short over here.

Finding: This survey tells that customers are not much happy with the long production lead time of Padma, although they are placing orders because of good quality fabric and reasonable price.

Recommendation & Conclusion

From the analyses and findings interpreted above, I would like to recommend the following factors to be taken seriously by Padma management.

* Padma should increase their loom efficiency and install higher quality foreign machineries in order to avoid different types of fabric fault as well as avoid compensations, which incurs huge amount of losses sometimes.

* Currently there is only one designer working at the design studio. A couple of more designers or assistants should be employed so that they can work efficiently in a team and design more lucrative and exact patterns.

* In order to avoid mismatch between samples and bulk, Padma should install fully automated computerized software and machineries because these problems usually arise from errors in manually input data and confusions from those. It is sometimes seen the pantone numbers are incorrect or the
sample numbers are incorrect in the labels. So, they should work seriously on this issue.

*Many more looms should be installed in order to avoid minimize the lead time for production. Otherwise the regular buyers will get delivery on time and local irregular buyers will not. Ultimately they will lose interest in Padma and in future if there’s any scarcity of foreign buyers and orders at Padma, those dissatisfied local buyers will not place orders either.

* A couple of more messengers should be employed at the sales & marketing office of Padma so that buyers can get samples promptly and on time. It is very important because if the buyers get sample from other fabric manufacturers quicker than Padma, they might switch from Padma and place orders with other manufacturers.

* Efficiency should be maximized by employing more professional management personnel so that fabric price can be reduced because the yarn prices are increasing on a weekly basis now.
* Padma should buy more cargos and vans of their own so that they can arrange immediate delivery and not wait for rented transport.

* Sales & marketing personnel should communicate well with the local buyers as well as the foreign buyers because no buyer should be seen as small in order to sustain with reputation in the market.

7.2- Conclusion:
From the above stated analysis, it can be said that product quality of Padma Textiles Ltd. Plays most significant rule for customer satisfaction. In addition to this, Good co-operation of Padma and Their verities of product also play crucial rule for customer satisfaction.

Further more, to some extent buyers become satisfied when their requirements are fulfilled. Moreover, Buyers also become satisfied when they get good co-operation from Padma Textiles Ltd.

Therefore, definitely product quality plays vital rule for customer satisfaction. But along with the product quality Good co-operations, Product variation and fulfilling buyer’s requirements appropriately plays a crucial rule for customer satisfaction.

If Padma can meet the recommendations above, there will be no other player in the market who could beat Padma in the Y/D shirting fabric industry.

Finally, I can conclude with saying that the product quality of Padma is the main reason for its customer satisfaction. Over here, product quality doesn’t mean the fabric quality only. It contains the over product, price, promotion, delivery, service, and commitment quality of Padma and its human resources.