Modern Banking Perspective of Mercantile Bank Limited

This report is prepared for a internship report. This intern report is about A Modern Banking Perspective of Mercantile Bank Ltd. Mainly focus of this report on Company Overview, Annual Statement, General Banking, loan & advances department, Foreign exchange department etc. Report also discuss about customer relation activities.



The word “Bank” refers to the financial institution dealing with money. Commercial banks are the primary contributions to the economy of the country. On the other hand they are borrowing money from the locals and lending the same to the business as loans and advances. So the people and the government is very much dependent on these banks as the financial intermediary. Moreover, banks are profit-earning concern, as the collect deposit at the lowest possible cost and provide loans and advances at higher cost. The differences between two are the profit for the bank.

Involvement of the banking sector in different financial events is increasing day by day. At the same time the banking process is becoming faster, easier and the banking arena is becoming wider. As the demand for better service increases, the banking organizations are coming with innovative ideas. In order to survive in the competitive field of the banking sector, all banking organizations are looking for better service opportunities to provide to their clients. As a result, it has become essential for every person to have some idea on the bank and banking procedure.

A student takes the internship program when he or she is at the last leg of the bachelor’s degree; internship program brings a student closer to the real life situation and thereby helps to launch a career with some experience.



Objective of the study

Broad Objectives

The broad objectives are as follow:

  • To find out the factors for profit generation of Mercantile Bank Limited.
  • To find out the factors for and growth of Mercantile Bank Limited.

Specific Objectives

  • To find out different earning sources of MBL.
  • To find out the sources of deposits of MBL.
  • To find out the special schemes of MBL.
  • To find out interest rates for different loan schemes, advance schemes and savings account.
  • To find out different income generating banking activities of MBL.
  • To find out major expenditure heads, other expenses and operating expenses of MBL.
  • To find out the profit of MBL, Mohakhalil Branch.
  • To find out barriers for increasing profit.
  • To find out what types of deposits are discouraged
  • To find out the opinion of the customers about the service provide by MBL.
  • To find out whether customers are interested to do banking in MBL
  • To find out the possibility of deposit increase
  • To find out how people are interested to take loan
  • To find out how people are encouraged to do banking in MBL
  • To find out the factors that attracts the customers to deposit in the Bank
  • To find out how customers came for the first time to deposit
  • To find out the customer opinion with regard to procedure of services like Demand Draft (DD), Telegraphic Transfer (TT), payment Order (PO), and Letter of Credit L/C at MBL



Primary Sources:

Major sources of Primary information discussed with my supervisor Md.Rezowanul karim (Officer) general banking. And also I have been collected primary information by interviewing employees, personally talking with managers, observing various organizational procedures, structures, directly communicating with different kind of customers.

Primary data has mostly derived from the discussion with the employees & through surveys on customers of the organization.

Secondary Source:

Sources of secondary information will be as follows:

Internal Sources:

  • Bank’s Annual Report
  • Group Business Principal

External Sources:

  • Different books and periodicals related to the banking sector.
  • Newspaper
  • Bangladesh Bank Report
  • Internet

Data collection instruments:

In-depth interview: During the exploratory research, in-depth interview has been conducted with various managers, employees & customers of Mercantile Bank Ltd.

Data collection Method

Formal questionnaire for data collection has not been used. Information has been collected through informal discussions with Relationship managers & respective Unit heads of customer service and also customers of this Bank.

For the organization part, information has been collected through different published articles, journal and brochures.


Historical Background of Mercantile Bank Ltd (MBL)

Banking system occupies an important place in a nation’s economy. A banking institution is indispensable in a modern society. It plays pivotal role; in the economic development of a country. Against the background of liberalization of economic policies in Bangladesh, Mercantile Bank Limited emerged as a new commercial bank to provide efficient banking services with a view to improving the socio-economic development of the country.

Mercantile Bank Limited has been incorporated on May 20th, 1999 in Dhaka, Bangladesh as a public limited company with the permission of the Bangladesh Bank; MBL commenced formal commercial banking operation from the June 02, 1999. The bank stood 42 branches all over the country up to 2008

There are thirty sponsors involved in creating Mercantile Bank Limited; the sponsors of the bank have a long heritage of trade, commerce and industry. They are highly regarded for their entrepreneurial competence. The sponsors happen to be members of different professional groups among whom are also renowned banking professionals having vast rang of banking knowledge. There are also members who are associated with other financial institutions insurance companies, leasing company’s etc.

The bank provides a broad range of financial services to its customers and corporate clients. The Board of Directors consists of eminent personalities from the realm of commerce and industries of the country.

The Bank is manned and managed by qualified and efficient professionals. Mr.Shah Md. Nurul Alam is holding charge of Managing Director upon expiry of term of Mr.M.Taheruddin as Managing Director on 14.04.2004. Mr. Lutfar Rahman Sarker, the former Governor of the central bank of Bangladesh was the Chief Advisor of the bank. He brings with him a wealth of experience of managing both public and private sector banks


Vision Mission & Objective


Would make finest corporate citizen.


Will become most caring, focused for equitable growth based on diversified deployment of resources, and nevertheless would remain healthy and gainfully profitable Bank.



Strategic objectives

  • to achieve positive Economic Value Added (EVA) each year.
  • to be market leader in product innovation.
  • to be one of the top three Financial Institutions in Bangladesh in terms of cost efficiency.
  • to be one of the top five Financial Institutions in Bangladesh in terms of market share in all significant market segments we serve.

Financial objectives

  • to achieve 20% return on shareholders’ equity or more, on average.


Functions of MBL

The bank plays a vital role for developing economic growth in any country money circulation. it  has a lot of function in different ways. Firstly to know about the bank:

A bank means an institution, which borrows money from the surplus unit of the society and lends money to the deficit for earning profit . the banker through current account mainly accepts the deposits, which are withdrawn by the cheques. Several heads of account also accept deposit-making institution, which deals with money and credit.

The functions of commercial banks are now wide and varied. However the functions of commercial banks may broadly be classified under the following two categories:

Function of MBL (Fig-03)

  1. Primary functions
  2. Secondary functions

Primary functions

Accept deposits

  1. Demand deposits
  2. Time deposits

Lends money

  1. Loans
  2. Overdrafts

Cash credit

Bills purchased and discounted

  1. Creates credit
  2. Creates medium exchange

Secondary functions

Agency Services

  • Collection of cheques, drafts, rents etc.
  • Execution of standing interaction
  • Conducting stock exchange transactions
  • Acting as correspondent and representative

General Utility Services

  • Accepting valuables for safe custody
  • Conducting foreign exchange business
  • Issuing of L/Cs

Transfer of funds in both ways

  • Telegraphic transfer  and  TCs
  • Lease financing
  • Merchant banking
  • Factoring
  • Serving as a referee
  • Underwriting shares and securities
  • Issuing debit and credit cards

The standard services offered by MBL

Bangladesh is one of the less development countries. So the economic development of the country depends largely on the activities of commercial Banks. So I need to emphasis whether these commercial Banks are effectively and honestly performing their functions, assign their duties, and responsibilities. In thus respect I need to know about the general banking function of those Banks as well as the MBL, is to provide the general banking service.

The general banking department does the most important and basic works of the bank. All other departments are linked with this department. It also pays a vital role in deposit mobilization of the branch. MBL provides different types of accounts, locker facilities and special types of saving scheme under general banking. For proper functioning and excellent customer service this department is divided into various sections namely as follows:

  • One-customer services for all banking needs of the customer
  • Customer counseling
  • Personalized services and relationship banking
  • Deposit banking
  • Loan and advances
  • Export and import facilities
  • Inland and foreign remittance facilities.


Annual statement

Balance Sheet

Mercantile Bank Limited

Balance Sheet as at December 31, 2008

Balance Sheet
Cash in hand (Including Foreign Currencies)443,342,558452,062,448
Balance with Bangladesh Bank and Sonali Bank Limited (Including Foreign Currencies)3,930,776,7823,265,291,647
Balance with Other Banks and Financial Institutions4327,911,508209,201,299
In Bangladesh177,928,388126,848,623
Outside Bangladesh149,983,12082,352,676
Money at Call and Short Notice5520,000,000
Loans and Advances741,993,945,81431,877,860,104
Loans, Cash Credit, Overdraft etc.7.A37,362,451,99128,799,208,279
Bills Purchased and Discounted7.B4,631,493,8233,078,651;825
Fixed Assets Including Premises,Furniture and Fixtures8682,999,856593,203,096
Other Assets9859,623,164922,951,636
Non-Banking Assets
Total Assets55,928,721,44944,940,537,108
Borrowings from other Banks, Financial Institutions and Agents102,326,325,000774,250,000
Deposits and other Accounts1146,374,178,83338,139,901,767
Current Accounts and Other Accounts11.15,831,638,3585,220,658,499
Bills Payable11.2677,763,825889,880,108
Savings Bank Deposits11.33,020,870,4402,344,752,184
Fixed Deposits11.417,501,418,86614,632,634,933
Bearer Certificate of Deposits11.525,939,840
Deposits Under Schemes11.619,342,487,34415,026,036,203
Other Liabilities123,610,885,5063,097,081,462
Total Liabilities52,311,389,33942,011,233,229
Capital/ Shareholders’ Equity
Paid-up Capital13.11,798,677,9001,498,898,300
Statutory Reserve141,222,833,902966,496,902
Other Reserves15233,183,099161,038,249
Surplus in Profit & Loss Account16362,637,209302,870,428
Total Shareholders’ Equity3,617,332,1102,929,303,879
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity55,928,721,44944,940,537,108
Acceptances and Endorsements178,157,477,0005,780,70’1,000
Letters of Guarantee17.13,640,902,8083,225,932,724
Irrevocable Letters of Credit17.27,281,346,2779,287,543,504
Bills for Collection17.373,305,88294,981,372
Other Contingent Liabilities17.4764,829,154514,946,142
Other CommitmentsB
Documentary credits and short term trade related transactions
Forward assets purchased and forward deposits placed
Undrawn note issuance and revolving underwriting facilities
Undrawn formal standby facilities, credit lines and other commitments

These Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the annexed notes (1 to 38)

Dewan Mujibur Rahman
Managing Director and CEO
Subrota Narayan Roy
M. A. Khan Belal
A S M Feroz Alam
Alhaj Mosharref Hossain
See annexed auditors’ report to the Shareholders of date.
Syful Shamsul Alam & Co.
Chartered Accountants
Basu Banerjee Nath & Co.
Chartered Accountants



Financial Highlights
Highlights for the year 2008 and 2007

(BDT in million)

1Paid-up Capital1,798.681,498.90
2Total Capital Fund4,186.693,387.17
3Capital Surplus/Deficit120.41483.51
4Total Assets55,928.7244,940.54
5Total Deposits49,538.3639,348.00
6Total Loans and Advances41,993.9531,877.86
7Total Contingent Liabilities and Commitments19,917.8618,904.10
8Credit Deposit Ratio (in %)84.7781.02
9Percentage of Classified Loans against Total Loans and Advances (in %)2.962.80
10Profit after Tax and Provision615.88540.50
11Amount of Classified Loans during the year348.47410.98
12Provision kept against Classified Loans578.20563.85
13Provision Surplus
14Cost of Fund (in %)9.198.75
15Interest Earning Assets49,941.8539,497.83
16Non-interest Earning Assets5,986.875,442.71
17Return on Investments (ROI) (in %)10.4610.98
18Return on Assets (ROA) (in %)1.221.32
19Income from Investments751.10764.48
20Earning Per Share (BDT)34.2436.05
21Net Income Per Share (BDT)34.2436.05
22Price Earning Ratio (approximate)10 Times12 Times





General banking is the starting point of all the banking operations. This is the department, which provides day-to-day or instant services to the customers. Since bank is confined to provide the services everyday, general banking is also known as ‘retail banking’. Main Functions of general banking department are the followings:

  1. Accounts Opening.
  2. Local Remittances.
  3. Different Schemes.
  4. Collection and Clearing House.
  5. Accounts Section.
  6. Cash Section.
  7. Locker Service

Accounts Opening

For building up the relation between Bank and Customer the first step, that is must be done is to open an account of the customer. Opening of an account binds the same into a contractual relationship. But the selection of customer is very crucial. In fact, fraud and forgery of all kinds start by opening of an account by the customer or customers.

Bank’s success and failure is largely depending on their customers. If customer is fraud, they may create fraud and forgery by their account with bank and thus destroy good will of the banks. So, this section takes extreme caution in selecting its customer base.

One of the basic functions of commercial banks is to accept deposits. For accepting deposits both demand and time, MBL-Mohakhali Branch offers the following types of accounts-


Types of accounts with terms and conditions

This part covers only following types of accounts-

  1. Current Account
  2. Savings Bank Account
  3. Short Term Deposit (STD) Account

Current Account: No restriction exists on the number of deposits into and withdrawal from this account. Opening balance must be Tk. 1000 and after than customer must maintain a minimum balance of Tk. 500. Tk. 50 is charged if balance falls short of minimum balance.

Interest Rate = No interest.

Generally businessmen open this kind of account.

Savings Account: This account can be opened by depositing Tk. 100. Mercantile Bank requires a minimum balance of Tk. 500 to continue the account. At one time, depositor can draw maximum 25% or Tk 1000 whichever lower.

Interest Rate = 6%

Individual, Businessmen or personally any one can open this kind of account.

Fixed Deposit Receipt: This deposit is taken for some maturity period. Depositor isn’t allowed to withdraw or deposit money 1 this account.

Bearer Certificate of Deposit: Special Characteristics of these accounts are-

  • Transferable by mere delivery only.
  • Duration 3-months to 12 months.
  • This certificate doesn’t contain any information about the depositor
  • It is sold at discount so that the difference between purchase price and face value becomes the interest earning for the depositors.
  • Denomination for this account is Tk. 1, 00,000. Tk. 50, 000 and Tk. 25,000 Only.
  • Opening of such account does not require any sort of document or any kind of information about the depositor.
  • Interest rate for BCD ranges from 8% to 9/5% depending of amount and maturity period.

The Bank then issues the following instruments to the customer to operate the account

  • Cheque Book: It is used to withdraw money from the account.
  • Deposit Book: It is used to deposit money in the account.

In case of issuing cheque book the above mentioned documents and the account opening form must be checked properly.

Issuing cheque book  For New and Old Account

Fresh checkbook is issued to the account holder only against requisition on the prescribed application form. In case of old account, requisition made on the prescribed requisition slip attached with the checkbook issued earlier. Generate a security no randomly for every check leaf by Manager or authorized person. Prepare the instrument with respective security no on the back of each leaf and signed by the authorized person. Make necessary entries in Check Issue Register. Finally issue the checkbook for client (s).

Issue of Duplicate check book

Duplicate checkbook in lieu of lost one should be issued only when an A/C holder personally approaches the Bank with an application Letter of Indemnity in the prescribed proforma agreeing to indemnify the Bank for the lost checkbook. Fresh check Book in lieu of lost, one should be issued after verification of the signature of the Account holder from the Specimen signature card and on realization of required Excise duty only with prior approval of manager of the branch. Check series number of the new checkbook should be recorded in ledger card signature card as usual. Series number of lost checkbook should be recorded in the stop payment register and caution should be exercised to guard against fraudulent payment.

Account enquiry

A customer can obtain the statement of his A/C by submission of an application in prescribed balance enquiry receipt. Normally it is supplied two times in a year. In addition, customer can know his current deposit position informally.

Transfer of an account

Account holder may transfer his account from one branch to another. For this, he/she must apply with proper reason to the manager of the branch where he is maintaining account. Manager then requests to the manager of that branch where the A/C holder wants to transfer his account. Besides, he also sends original copy of account opening form and signature card and photocopy of application for transferring the account with the balance remained in the account.

Closing of an account

An account may close-

  1. When the customer desirous to close the account.
  2. When the account is inoperative for a long time.
  3. In case of customer’s death, insanity or insolvency.

To close an account, the checkbook is to be returned to the bank. The bank makes charges for the same by debiting the amount from his account and rest amount is then paid to the customer. Necessary entries are given to the account closing register and computer. Finally make sure that A/C holder is completely free from all dues.

Accounts opening process

Individual, firms or company anyone can open an account in the bank according to the bank’s prescribed form. Applicant must submit required documents with his application form. Different kinds of documents are required for different kinds of accounts or applications. For individual only introduction by another account holder of the same bank may be enough but for firm and others relevant papers/documents must be submitted to the bank for verifications. There is a manual (Check list for account opening) of the MBL for general banking division mentioning the required documents for different types of accounts.  The authorized officer scrutinizes the introduction and examines the documents submitted. If every thing appears as satisfactory, three signatures should be made Verified by-Officer, Admitted by-Officer and approved by-Manager. For opening accounts one thing is must that is initial deposit. This should be made in cash no Cheque; no draft is acceptable for opening account purpose.


Procedure & rules to open a new account

Savings account

Before opening of a savings Bank Account, the following formalities must be completed by the customer:


  • Introducer
  • 2 copies passport size photograph dully attested by introducer
  • Valid passport/ ward commissioner’s identification certificate
  • Prescribed account opening form filled in properly by intending account holder
  • Putting specimen signatures in the specimen card.
  • Fill the KYC form
  • Initial deposit Tk. 5000/- only

After fulfilling above formalities, opens an account for the client and provide the customer with a deposit book and a checkbook in case of savings account and currents account.

Current account (Individual)


  • Introducer (current account holder)
  • 2 copies passport size photograph dully attested by introducer
  • Valid passport/ ward commissioner’s identification certificate
  • Prescribed account opening form filled in properly by intending account holder
  • Putting specimen signatures in the specimen card.
  • Fill the KYC form
  • Initial deposit Tk. 5000/- only

Joint Account

When an account is opened in the names of two or more persons it is called a joint account. However, it is desirable that the number should not exceed three. At the time of opening an account, clear and specific instructions shall be obtained regarding operation of the account and payment of the balance, if any, to the survivors or surviving members in the event of death of one or more joint account holders. Account shall be operated by ‘either of us’ or ‘either of survivor, or us or ‘both of us jointly’ or ‘both of us or survivor’.

Current account (Proprietorship)

No saving account shall be opened in the proprietary concern. Application to open current accounts will be made on which the name of the proprietor and his authorized signature must be obtained. All formalities regarding the benefice of the account openers and the introducer’s rules of the opening of the accounts etc. must be completed to the absolute satisfaction of the manager.


  • Introducer (Current account holder)
  • 2 copies passport size photograph dully attested by introducer
  • Valid passport/ ward commissioner’s identification certificate.
  • Trade license
  • Seal of the firm
  • TIN Certificate
  • Prescribed account opening form filled in properly by intending account holder
  • Putting specimen signatures in the specimen card.
  • Fill the KYC form.
  • Initial deposit Tk. 5000/- only


In case of partnership account,


  • Introducer (current account holder)
  • 2 copies passport size photograph dully attested by introducer
  • Valid passport/ ward commissioner’s identification certificate of all partners.
  • Trade license
  • Seal of the firm
  • Partnership deed
  • Prescribed account opening form filled in properly by intending account holder
  • Putting specimen signatures in the specimen card.
  • Fill the KYC form.
  • Initial deposit Tk. 5000/- only

Current Account (Limited Company)

On having the desire to open an account from a limited company, a MBL Officer asks for the following documents:


  • Introducer (current account holder)
  • 2 copies passport size photograph dully attested by introducer
  • Valid passport/ ward commissioner’s identification certificate of all directors.
  • Trade license of the company
  • Memorandum and articles of association of company (certified copy/ photocopy dully attested by authorized signatory
  • Board Resolution
  • Certificate of incorporation
  • Certificate of commencement of business (for public limited company)
  • TIN certificate
  • List of directors
  • Seal of the company
  • Prescribed account opening form filled in properly by intending account holder
  • Putting specimen signatures in the specimen card.
  • Fill the KYC form.
  • Initial deposit Tk. 5000/- only

The name of the persons who have been authorized to operate the bank account on behalf of the company.

The name of the persons who are authorized to execute documents with the bank on company’s behalf.

Societies, Clubs and Associations:

In case of these sorts of accounts MBL requires the following documents:

  • Registration Certificate Under the Societies Registration Act, 1962
  • Copies of Memorandum, Articles of Association
  • Resolution of the Managing Committee.
  • Power of Attorney to Borrow.

Non-government Organization (NGO):

The account opening procedure is same but in exception is that the Registration Certificate from the Social Welfare Department of Government must be enclosed with the application.

Joint Account in The Name of Minor:

A minor cannot open an account in his own name due to the incapacity to enter into a contract. He can open an account in MBL in Joint name of another person who will be guardian of him.


Local Remittances:

Cash remitting from one place to another is risky. So, Banks remit funds on behalf of the customer (s) to save them from any awkward happening through network of their branches. There are three modes of remitting funds. These are –

  1. Pay Order (PO)
  2. Pay Slip (PS)
  3. Demand draft (DD)
  4. Telegraphic Transfer (TT)

A) Pay Order (PO):

Pay order is an instrument, used to remit fund within a clearing zone. Unlike cheque, there is no possibility of dishonoring PO. The PO can only be enchased through the branch that has issued the instrument.

Pay Order (PO) Issuing Process:

For issuing a PO, following formalities are to be maintained. These are –

  • Duly filled up the application form by the customer.
  • Deposit money either in cash or by cheque with necessary charges.
  • Prepare the instrument and make necessary entries in the Bills Payable Register where payee’s name, date, PO no. etc are noted.
  • Deliver the instrument to the customer after scrutinized and approved by authority by taking signature of the customer on the counterpart.

Cancellation of PO

The following procedure is followed to refund the pay order by cancellation:

  1. Submit written request to refund the pay order attaching therewith the original PO.
  2. Verify purchaser’s signature with the original application form on record.
  3. Manager/authorized person’s prior permission is required before refunding the amount of pay order.
  4. Pay order should be affixed with a stamp ‘cancelled’ under proper authentication and the authorized officer’s signature on the pay order.
  5. No charge is created for cancellation. Refund only the pay order amount.
  6. The original entries are to be reversed with proper narration.
  7. Record the cancelled pay order in the Pay Order Issue Register.

Loss of Pay Order

If the instrument is lost, the holder is asked to fulfill the following requirements-

  1. Holder should inform the bank immediately.
  2. Record a GD (General Diary) in the nearest Police Station.
  3. Furnish an Indemnity Bond.

Collection of Pay Order

If the payee is a customer of Mohakhali Branch, he will deposit it for collection. Then the branch gives necessary endorsement as a collecting bank. Then the instrument places the issuing bank through clearing house.

Use of pay order

  • A pay order is issued and paid by the same branch of a bank and as such, the drawer and the drawer are the same. The person or the organization in whose favor it is issued is known as payee or the beneficiary. It is some times sold to individual on payment of value who may or may not be a customer and is called the purchaser.
  • The purchaser should sign the standard application form giving detailed particulars and request for issue of pay order. The payee or beneficiary must not appear to be fictitious. His full name and address should be written on the application. Bank should recover commission of pay order from the purchaser.
  • A pay order is divided into three parts viz. The actual pay order, the second counterfoil to be returned by the payee and the first counterfoil to be retained by the issuing branch as record.

Characteristics & payment

  • It should be paid to the payee or beneficiary after proper identification or it may be credited to his account.
  • A pay order is transferable. As it is a banker’s cheque payable to order the payee/ beneficiary may transfer it, by giving proper discharge on its back, to some one else who receives payment as the transferee.
  • It is not generally collected for a persons other that the original payee except in cases where the depositor is a valued client known to the bank.
  • Before making payment the signature of issuing officers should be verified and the date of payment should be marked in the register.

B) Pay slip

If anybody get any amount from MBL then MBL issue pay slip. He can deposit the pay slip in any bank’s any branch.

Meaning & purpose

  • A pay slip is a written authorization for making payment-specified person or firm payable by issuing branch, for a discharged liability of the bank. As pay slip is originated made payable by the bank in a receipt form there is no need for any application for its issue.
  • A pay slip is issued to effect payments on account of bills payable by the bank for goods and services purchased or availed by it. For example, bank is required to make payment of bills for the purchase of furniture & fixture, for printing & stationery and for any other works done on its behalf by the other party on agreement with the bank.

Characteristics & payment

A pay slip is receipt of payment received by the payee due from the bank. It should be paid to the payee on proper identification or credited to his account on its being presented duly discharged by him or revenue stamp of required value. Cash payment should not be made if it is crossed except to a collecting bank.

C) Demand draft (DD)

DD is called ‘Banker’s Draft’. It is an instrument, issued by a particular branch, drawn on another branch of the same bank, instructing to pay a certain sum of money. It is very popular instrument for remitting fund from one corner of a country to another. DD is issued in favour of a customer who maintains an A/C with MBL Mohakhali Branch. It can be issued against Cash or Cheque. If DD amount is more than Tk. 50,000/= a test code is given on IBCA. The A/C treatments will be-

The banker even on receiving instructions from the remitter cannot stop the payment of the instrument. Stop payment can be done in the following cases-

  1. Loss of draft before endorsement: In this case, “Draft reported to be lost, payee’s endorsement requires verification” is marked.
  2. Loss of draft after endorsement: In this case, the branch first satisfies itself about the claimant and the endorsement in his favor.

Cancellation of DD

To cancel an issued DD, the client has to submit an application. Issuing branch then sends an Inter Branch Debit Advice (IBDA) to the drawn branch against previously issued Inter Branch Credit Advice (IBCA). After that the following entries are given-

Issue of Demand Drafts

  • The customer is asked to complete filling in a form that is treated as an application as well as voucher. The application form should be checked carefully.
  • Commission charges are calculated and inserted in the case provided in the form.
  • The voucher given to the customer to deposit the cash with the cashier.
  • The cashier receives the cash and delivers the voucher to Remittance Department against initial in his book.
  • Draft is prepared and entered in draft issue Register.
  • Branch-wise serial number is given on the draft besides the printed number putting on oblique (/) in between. The amount protect graphed.
  • The draft number is written on the voucher.
  • Draft block and the voucher along with the register are sent to the officer in charge for checking and signatures. He signs the draft and voucher and initials the counterfoil of the draft and the Register.
  • Then the draft and the voucher are sent to the Manager/ Second Officer for second signature.
  • The draft is crossed if customers desires and delivered to him against his acknowledgement on the voucher.
  • If the amount is tendered by a cheque, the drawer to and the purchaser of the draft should be the same person, i.e. the signature on the cheque and on the application form must tally.
  • A memorandum is issued to the customer if he or she desires.
  • The cheque is sent for passing and cancellation.
  • After the cheque is passed, similar procedure as explained above is adopted for issuing draft.

Issuing of Duplicate DD

If the customer wants a duplicate DD, he then is asked to do the following formalities-

  1. Throwing an application immediately by the original DD holder.
  2. Making a General Diary (GD) in the nearest Police Station.
  3. Furnishing an Indemnity Bond.
  4. Put a ‘CAUTION’ mark in the register.
  5. Inform to the Head Office by the issuing branch
  6. Inform all the branches by the HO for stop payment.
  7. Issue a new DD (Put the same DD no. and mark DUPLICATE).

DD Charge

  • Commission @ 0.10% but minimum Tk. 10/=
  • Postage charge Tk. 30/= (Fixed).
  • DD cancellation charge Tk. 50/= (Fixed).
  • Issuing of duplicate instrument Tk. 50/=

D) Telegraphic transfer (TT)

Telegraphic Transfer may be affected at the written request of any person and against value received from him. A written application on the bank’s prescribed form duly signed by the purchaser should be obtained. If the application for issue of telegraphic transfer contains instruction to debit the account of the purchaser, his signature should be verified. It is however, preferable to obtain a confirmation cheque from the customer.

The application form is in variably checked on the following points:

  • There should be a branch of MBL in the place on which Telegraphic Transfer will be issued and the said branch has test arrangement with the issuing branch.
  • Full name of the payee and his A/C no., in case instructions are to credit his test arrangement with the issuing branch.
  • The amount of T.T Commission and Telegram charges should be received from the purchaser. The total amount may be paid in cash or tendered by a cheque if he is customer of the branch. Some times, the customer may also desire to pay the amount of T.T by cheque and commission and telegraph charges by cash.
  • In case of amount tendered by cheque, the drawer on the cheque and the purchaser of the TT should be the same person, viz., the signature on the cheque and on the application should tally. Such cheque should be in favor of Mercantile Bank Ltd.
  • Now, a cost memo for the TT is to be prepared by the officer under his signature which contains the amount of TT Commission & Telegram charges & is delivered to the purchaser.
  • Now the officer concerned as to the amount, name of the beneficiary has correctly prepared the message, instructions regarding mode of payment and place of payment.
  • The concern officers should correctly prepare the test.
  • T over telephone may be transmitted on account of valued clients of the bank.

Payment of Telegraphic Transfer

The payment of T.T should be made to the payee or beneficiary after being satisfied in all respect. The serial number of T.T should be entered in T.T payable register on the relative folio next to that of previous message on agreement of test.  The issuing branch should be immediately informed if any number is omitted.

  • The voucher should be passed. The beneficiary should be intimated the earliest, if possible may be informed on telephone.
  • If the instructions are to be “Advise and pay, the T.T receipt should be prepared. The manager and the officer of the branch should sign after checking the name of the beneficiary, the amount and the name of the issuing branch. The number of T.T receipt

Should be noted in the T.T payable Register and on the decoded manages. The beneficiary should be advised on the printed prescribed form instead of sending the T.T receipt.

  • When the amounts are credited/ paid the same and should be noted in the T.T payable register. While making the payment on a T.T receipt, the signatures of the attorney who have signed be verified cancelled.
  • The T.T receipts are not transferable. They should not bear any endorsement. The beneficiary is too signed on proper revenue stamp in front of the officer. Party acceptable should attest the signatures of the beneficiary to the bank.

Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR)

Fixed deposits are time deposits or time liabilities. These are the deposits in which an amount of cash is deposited in Bank for a fixed period specified in advance. Before opening a Fixed Deposit Account a customer has to fill up an application from which contains the followings-

  • Amount in figures
  • Beneficiary’s name and address
  • Time period
  • Rate of Interest
  • Date of Issue
  • Date of maturity
  • How the account will be operated (singly or jointly)
  • Signature (s)
  • D.R. no.

After fulfilling the above information and depositing the amount, FDR account is opened and a FDR receipt is issued and it is recorded in the FDR Register, which contains the following information-

  • FDR account no.
  • FDR (Fixed Deposit Receipt) no.
  • Name of the FDR holder with address
  • Maturity period
  • Maturity date
  • Interest Rate.

Renewal of FDR

Customer supposes to inform the bank in writing 15 days before the maturity date for encashment. If not, bank normally renews the amount just after the maturity date. Renewal will be for previously agreed maturity period.

Loss of FDR

If the instrument is lost from the possession of the holder, the holder is asked to fulfill the following requirements-

  1. Holder should inform the bank immediately
  2. Record a GD (General Diary) in the nearest Police Station.
  3. Furnish an Indemnity Bond.

On fulfilling the above requirements, MBL bank is then issued a duplicate FDR.


The Bank mobilized total deposits of Tk. 25727.48 million as of 31st Dec, 2005 as compared to Tk. 22385.19 million as of 31st Dec, 2004. Competitive interest rates, deposits mobilization efforts of the Bank and confidence reposed by the customer in the Bank contributed to the notable growth in deposits. Efforts are being made to broaden the deposit base while reducing the average cost of fund.

Collection and Clearing House

Customers do pay and receives bills from their counter party as a result, a transaction happens. A clearing house is such kind of house where all members Bank settled their inter bank transactions through their Bangladesh Accounts. As the Central Bank, Bangladesh Bank is the leader of clearing House in Bangladesh. There are 53 members Bank in Bangladesh under Central Bank. There are two parties in Clearing House i.e. First House (Cheque Delivery) and Second House (Return Delivery).

MBL collects the bills on behalf of their customers. Collection mechanisms in MBL are clearing, Outward Bill for Collection, Inward Bills for Collection.


According to the Article 37(2) of Bangladesh Bank Order 1972, the banks, which are the member of the clearinghouse, are called as Scheduled Banks. The scheduled banks clear the cheques drawn upon one another through the clearinghouse. This is an arrangement by the central bank where everyday the representative of the member banks gathers to clear the cheques. Banks for credit of the proceeds to the customer’s accounts accept cheques and other similar instruments. The bank receives many such instruments during the day from account holders. Many of these instruments are drawn payable at other banks.

The place where the banks meet and settle their dues is called the Clearinghouse. The clearinghouse sits for two times a working day. The members submit the claimable cheques in the respective desks of the banks and vice-versa. Consequently the debit and credit entries are given. At the debit summation and the credit summation are calculated. Then the banks clear the balances through the cheque of Bangladesh Bank. The dishonored cheques are sorted and returned with return memo.

Types of Clearing

Clearing is two types.

  • Inward Clearing
  • Outward Clearing
  • Inward Clearing

In Inward clearing process cheques of Mercantile Bank Ltd, General Branches are deposited in other banks and sent back to Foreign Exchange Branch of MBL through clearing house for collection of money. Mercantile Bank Ltd are sent to the local office of Mercantile Bank at first. Then the local office sent those cheques to the General Branch.

Process of Inward Clearing

After receiving the cheques from the local office of Mercantile Bank Ltd, those cheques are directly send to the computer section for checking the balance of those specific A/Cs from which money should be collected. If the required balance is available there then the amount is debited from that account and the cheque is honored. But in case if the required balance is not available the authorized officer of clearing department immediately informs to the head of the general banking or he tries to connect the account holder. If the account holder does not deposit the required balance immediately the cheque is dishonored. Finally the authorized officer gives all the entry of those cheques in inward clearing register.

Dishonor of cheque

If the cheque is dishonored, Mercantile Bank sends a memorandum (cheque return memo) to the customer stating the reason in the following way,

  • Refer to drawer
  • Not arranged for
  • Effects not cleared. May be presented again.
  • Exceeds arrangements
  • Full cover not received.
  • Payment stopped by drawer.
  • Payee’s endorsement irregular/ required.
  • Payee’s endorsement irregular, require Bank’s confirmation.
  • Drawer’s signature differs/ required.
  • Alterations in date/ figures/ words require drawer’s full signature.
  • Cheque is post dated/ out of date/ mutilated.
  • Amount in words and figures differs.
  • Crossed cheque must be presented through a bank.
  • Clearing stamp required/ requires cancellation.
  • Addition to Bank’s discharge should be authenticated.
  • Cheque crossed” Account Payee Only”
  • Collecting Bank’s discharge irregular/ required.


Accounts Section

Accounts department maintains all records of transactions and all types of statement. At the end of transaction hour all concerned section sends vouchers of transactions to this department. Accounts department compares all figures/amount, contents of transactions with supplementary statement prepared by computer. If any discrepancy arises regarding any transaction then this department reports to the concerned department. Following are the activities of accounts department:

  • To record all transaction in the cash book.
  • To prepare daily, weekly, monthly, half-yearly and yearly fund position.
  • To prepare all kinds of statements related to Bangladesh Bank, Head office and National Board of Revenue (NBR).
  • To prepare monthly salary statement, provident fund statement and administrative expenditure statement.
  • To make charges for different types of duty.

Cash Section

Cash is the lifeblood of all financial activities. Cash section is a very sensitive point of the branch. This section deals with all types of negotiable instruments and it includes vault, used as the store of cash, instruments. Operation of this section begins when the banking hour starts. Cash officer begins his/her transaction with taking money from the vault, known as the opening cash balance. Vault is kept in a more secured place. The amount of opening cash balance is entered into a register. After whole day’s transaction, the surplus money remains in the cash counter is put back in the vault and known as the closing balance. The main functions of this section are-

  1. Cash Receipt.
  2. Cash Payment.

Cash receipt

Cash receipt procedure is given below-

  1. The depositor first fills up the Deposit-in-Slip.
  2. Depositor deposits the money.
  3. Officer receives the money, counts and then enters in the Cash
  4. Receipt Register, and finally signs with seal send date the deposit-in-slip.
  5. Slip is then passed to another officer, who enters the receipt details like serial no, amount, etc. in his register, signs the slip and keeps the banks part of the slip. Other part is given to the depositor.
  6. At the end of the day, entries are cross-checked with the register kept at the cash counter to see whether the transactions are correct or not.

Cash payment

Some important check points for making the payment are as follows-

Cash payment procedure is given below

  1. Customer first deposits the check (s) to the cash section. Authorized individual checks whether it is materially altered, proper endorsed, crossed or not. Being satisfied the total requirements; he passes it to computer for posting. Operator verifies the check leaf security no. If matched, then operator signs. Otherwise noticed to the individual for stop payment;
  2. Authorized officer is then verifying the signature with the Signature Card.

If the Authorized officer is conform about the signature then he/she makes the followings;

  • Branch Seal.
  • Pay cash seal.
  1. Then send the instrument to the cash payment counter.
  2. Cash officer is then asked the bearer to sign on the back of the instrument. At the same he just enters the payment details in his register and pays the money to the bearer.
  3. At the end of the day, this information must be tallied with computer postings to ensure the correctness of payment.


Dishonor of Cheque

If the cheque is dishonored, MBL sends a memorandum (cheque return memo) to the customer stating the reason in the following way;

  1. Refer to drawer
  2. Not arranged for.
  3. Effects not cleared, may be presented again.
  4. Exceeds arrangements.
  5. Full cover not received.
  6. Payment stopped by drawer.
  7. Payee’s endorsement irregular/illegible/required.
  8. Payee’s endorsement irregular/require Bank’s confirmation.
  9. Drawer’s signature differs/required.
  10. Alteration in date/figures/words requires drawer’s full signature.
  11. Cheque is posts dated/out of date/mutilated.
  12. Amount in words and figures differs.
  13. Crossed cheque must be presented through a bank.
  14. Clearing stamp required/requires cancellation.
  15. Addition to Bank’s discharge should be authenticated.
  16. Cheque crossed “Account Payee Only”.
  17. Collecting Bank’s discharge irregular/required.


Sorting of the Voucher

At the day end an authorized officer keep the voucher after doing the following work-

  • Collects all the vouchers.
  • Then sort those voucher according to the account. Like Savings, Current, Loan etc.
  • Separates the Debit a Credit vouchers.
  • Check those vouchers with supplementary (Printed from the computer).
  • Then those vouchers are stored in the store house.

Locker Service

MBL, Mohakhali Branch offers their valued customer the Locker Service. This service helps the customer to keep their important documents, paper, and instrument and precious item in safe and sound.

These facilities are maintained by two responsible and senior personnel. Both the person maintains separate keys for each account or locker for highest safety.


In MBL, Mohakhali Branch there is two Chambers. Each of them contains 50 Lockers. According to the size there are different types of locker such as Large, Medium and Small. Below table will show different types of locker and its charged


  • Must be a savings Account holder.
  • An application form must be filled up.
  • Single/Joint operation.
  • Seal of the company (if required)
  • 2 copies of PP size photos.
  • Yearly charge must be pain in advance.
  • Security money is refundable at the time of closing.

Ending Summery

General Banking engaged in cash received, payment, cheque clearing, opening accounts and local remittance etc. General Banking is the starting point of all Banking operations. It helps to the customers in various ways.

Dispatch: This section is responsible for receiving the entire letter from outside of the bank and to send the entire letter from the bank. For this purpose, this section keeps two register books. It also receives the entire document and any thing addressing the bank. However, two types of letters are continuously received in his branch, these are:

  1. Inward (Registered/Unregistered) letters
  2. Outward (Registered/Unregistered) letters.

This is in short about general banking which I have learned from the bank at the time of my internship period. If the cash received and cash payment, transfer received and payment are same and no fraud is found then the day transaction is closed and it is time to go.



Loan and Advance

The Loans & Advances department is very important is very important part of the branch operation that also provides administrative support for the lending activities of the branch. The Loans & Advances department provides and effective perfect check and balance on funds lend to clients and that the transaction is within approved limit for borrower and amount. In MBL, Mohakhali Branch, a big amount of loans and advances are sanctioned every year.

Principles of Loans and Advances

  • All lending will be adequately secured with acceptable security and margin requirements as lay down by the Head Office Credit Committee.
  • Loans and advances shall be normally funded from customers’ deposits of a permanent nature, and not out of short-term temporary funds or borrowings from other banks or through short-term money market operations.

Credit evaluation will include:

  1. Prevalent credit practices in the market place.
  2. Credit worthiness, background and track record of the borrower.
  3. Financial standing of the borrower supported by financial statements and other documented evidence.
  4. Legal jurisdiction and implications of applicable laws.
  5. Effect of any applicable regulations and laws.
  6. Purpose of the loan/facility.
  7. Tenure of the loan/facility.
  8. Viability of the business proposition.
  9. Cash flow projections.
  10. Quality and adequacy of security, if available.
  11. Risk taking capacity o the borrower.
  12. Entrepreneurship and managerial capabilities of the borrower.
  13. Reliability of the sources of repayment.
  14. Volume of risk in relation to the risk taking capacity of the Bank Company concerned.


Loan Application Form

The starting point of project appraisal is the receipt of will-documented loan applications from the Sponsors (Client) in the bank’s standard questionnaire form and duly signed by the prospective borrower.

For any Type of credit facilities relating to the working capital, trade finance, project finance and contract work, Clients/borrowers, must filled an application form with following information. Loan Application From of Mercantile Bank Limited asks the following information about the client.

  • Name of Firm/Company/Individual
  • Business Address
  • Permanent Address
  • Constitution/Status (Sole Proprietorship! Partnership! Public Ltd. Co/private Ltd. Co.)
  • Date of Establishment and Place of incorporation
  • Background and Business Experience

Particulars of Assets:

  • Land/Building
  • Bank Deposit
  • Stock/Shares
  • Nature of Business
  • Statement of Liabilities with other Banks

Financial Statements for the last 3 years explaining the following terms

Capital Funds/Net Worth

  • Paid up Capital
  • Retained Earnings
  • General Reserve

Balance Sheet Statistics

  • Current Assets
  • Fixed Assets
  • Current Liabilities
  • Term liabilities
  • Capital/Equity
  • Total Liabilities

For working capital finance clients/borrowers must provide the following information:

  • Annual Production
  • Annual Sales
  • Cash flow Statements


LRA (Lending Risk Analysis): Credit Risk Evaluation

Credit officer of the Bank evaluate the risk related to the loan during proposal writing. They evaluate the risk on the basis of the given information by the client; sometime officer do the physical inspection of the project. An accurate appraisal of risk in ant credit exposure is highly subjective matter involving qualitative and quantitative judgment, where Quantitative factors refer to the analysis of financial statement ratios.

Quantitative factors refer to the assessment of management, industry position, Customer/Supplier relations, account performance and reputation.

Bank Usually analyzes both quantitative and qualitative factors is a combined way for assessing borrower’s financial position, In evaluating any credit proposal, the credit officers of the bank uses the following distinct and logical steps:

  • Evaluating the past performance of the borrower.
  • Assessing the risk of failure by identifying factors in the borrower’s present condition and past performance, this indicates likelihood of success to repay the loan.
  • Forecasting the probable future condition of the borrower and deciding whether to accept or reject a loan proposal.
  • Setting terms and conditions of credit facilities.
  • Obtaining the sanction documents and disbursing the loan.
  • Monitoring performance and ensuring repayment/recovery.

The most pertinent and prime part of the process is assessment of risk of failure to repay deals with the overall lending risk combining;

  • Business Risks.
  • Financial Risks Management Risks.
  • Security Risks.
  • Environmental Risks.

The following basic aspects are taken into consideration while conducting business risks, Financial Risks Management Risks, Security Risks, and Environmental Risks.

Business Risks

Credit officers analyze the risk on the basis of the given information by the customer. Credit officer see the description of business, its characteristics, whether the business is labor intensive or capital intensive, competitive or monopoly. Industrial projects are appraised to determine its size, maturity and diversification, they also analyze the suppliers bargaining power, reliability, availability and sources of supply, and Sales analysis is conducted to determine the product’s current demand, unsatisfied demand, future demand and competition.

Financial Risks

Financial risk assessment is another important part of the proposal. Credit officers do the financial appraisal is to assess the viability of the proposed project in terms of the operation in the future year and its financial soundness. To ensure the current solvency as well as the continued solvency during the currency of loan of its client, bank analyzes the following financial aspects:

  • Investment outlay and cost of the project.
  • Means of financing.
  • Cost of capital.
  • Cash Flow Analysis.
  • Internal Rate o Return.
  • Analyzing Balance Sheet and Income Statement to determine liquidity, profitability, and debt management.
  • Sensitivity analysis and Ratio Analysis.

Management Risks

  • High degree of employee turnover.
  • Inefficient financial control.
  • Lack of willingness to adapt the changing situation.
  • Unaware of different market position.

Security Risks

Collateral is one of the important parts for a credit proposal. Security risks refer to inadequacy of collateral offered and supported by liquidation analysis in terms of marketability, valuations of security and legal issues. It is the risk that the bank falls to realize the security. Security risks involve:

  • Obtaining a favorable judgment.
  • Perfection level of security documents.
  • Getting possession of security society or govt.
  • Change in weather may affect the demand.
  • Realized security value may be less than the exposure.
  • Increasing duration of liquidation process.

Environmental/Economic Risks

A project must be judge from the larger social point of view. It includes:

  • Large industries may pollute air and water by the residue like gas and other dangerous chemical liquid, such projects may be considered as environment unfriendly.
  • Product or service may be banned by the d of the product.

Processing and Screening of Credit Proposal

MBL strictly followed some common regulatory, which are governed, by Banking Companies Act, Bangladesh Bank and the Law of the State. Not only that MBL screening any credit proposal very carefully from the root level.

In case of taking the credit facilities customers first contact with the branch office. They place their credit proposal to the branch then the credit section of the branch takes necessary steps i.e. discussing with the customers regarding different issue of the credit, to judge whether the investment will be viable or not. The credit section informed the client regarding different formalities about taking the credit. If the credit section is satisfied about the proposal then the proposal is send to the credit department of the MBL. The credit committee critically analyzes the proposal by discussing and by calculating different aspects to make sure that the proposal will be profitable for the MBL.


General Procedure for Loans and Advances

The following procedure is applicable for giving loans to the customer. This are-

  1. Information Sheet
  2. Application for Credit Line
  3. Collecting CIB report from Bangladesh Bank
  4. Making credit line proposal
  5. Project appraisal
  6. Head office approval
  7. Sanction letter
  8. Documentation
  9. Disbursement
  10. Monitoring
  11. Recovery


Mode of Charging Securities

MBL Mohakhali Branch practices these two types of securities.

  1. Primary securities:- Cash or cash equivalent that is easily liquidated or convertible into cash. Example-FDR, Sanchaypatra, DP Notes, etc.
  2. Secondary securities:-These securities are tangible securities which can be realized from sale proceeds or transfer of property. Example-immovable properties like land, buildings, etc.

The modes of charging securities are as follows-

  1. Pledge
  2. Hypothecation
  3. Lien
  4. Mortgage

Lien: Lien is the right to retain possession and not right of ownership. Bank’s lien is general lien over its own financial obligation to clients. Property under lien cannot be realized/sold and proceeds there of cannot be appropriated without notice to the owner and sometimes without court’s order.

Hypothecation: This is mortgage of movables by an agreement and here neither possession nor ownership is transferred. Hypothecated goods cannot be sole out/disposed off without notice and court’s order. However, if a special power of attorney is taken in that case can be disposed off without going to the court.

Pledge: Pledge is the bailment of goods as security for payment of a debt or performance or promise. Here, title and ownership are not transferred. Pledge goods may be sold out and proceeds there of may be appropriated towards adjustment of Liability in case of failure of the borrower to repay or fulfill the terms and conditions.

Mortgage: Mortgage is the transfer of interest in immovable property to secure the repayment of money advanced. Ownership remains with the mortgagor. In case of equitable mortgage, Court Order is necessary and in case of registered mortgage court’s order is not necessary for sale/disposal of the mortgaged property for adjustment of advance.

Proper and correct documentation is essential not only for the safety of an advance but also necessary for taking legal action against the debtors in case of non-payment or dues. Depending on the types of the Loans and Advances different types of documents may be required, such as-

For Loan:

  • Demand Promissory Note
  • Letter of Partnership/Board Resolution
  • Letter of Arrangement
  • Letter of disbursement
  • Letter of pledge
  • Letter of hypothecation
  • Trust Receipts
  • Letter of lien and ownership (in case of advance against shares)
  • Letter of lien for packing credits
  • Letter of lien
  • Letter of lien and transfer authority
  • Legal documents for mortgage of property


  • Demand Promissory Note
  • Letter of Partnership/Board Resolution
  • Letter of Arrangement
  • Letter of Continuity
  • Letter of hypothecation
  • Letter of lien
  • Letter of lien and ownership
  • Letter of lien and transfer authority
  • Legal documents for mortgage of property.

Cash Credit:

  • Demand promissory Note
  • Letter of Partnership/Board Resolution
  • Letter of Arrangement
  • Letter of Continuity
  • Letter of Pledge
  • Letter of hypothecation
  • Letter of lien
  • Letter of lien and transfer authority
  • Letter of lien and ownership
  • Legal documents for mortgage of property.

Bills Purchased:

  • Demand Promissory Note
  • Letter of Partnership/Board Resolution
  • Letter of Continuity
  • Letter of hypothecation of bill


After verifying all the documents the branch disburses the loan to the borrower. A loan repayment schedule also prepared by the bank and given to the borrower.



After the disbursement of the loan bank officials time to time monitor the loan by physical observation of the activities of the party. It is done in the following manner:

  • Constant supervision
  • Working Capital Assessment.
  • Stock Report analysis.


Loan classification

Classification Scale

  1. Unclassified    : Repayment is regular.
  2. Substandard    : Repayment is irregular or stoppedbut has reasonable prospect of Improvement.
  3. Doubtful debt : Unlikely to be repaid but special Collection efforts may result in partial recovery.
  4. Bad/Loss         : Very little chance of recovery.


Classification Procedure

Classification procedure for all types of bank loans including industrial loans is governed by the guidelines contained in BRPD Circular No. 16 issued by Bangladesh Bank in 6th December 1998 and subsequently revised partially through BRPD Circular No. 9 issued in 14th May 2001. According to the revised guidelines the principal of credit classification and provisioning are defined as under:

With a view to classifying, loans & advances will be categorized into four different categories. Such as:

  • Continuous Loan.
  • Demand Loan.
  • Fixed Term Loan.
  • Short Term Agricultural and Micro-Credit.



The loan classification procedure for all types of loan is governed by the guidelines contained in BRPD Circular no 16 dated 06.12.98 issued by Bangladesh Bank and subsequently revised partially through BRPD Circular no 9 and 10 dated 14.05.2001. According to this circular If any borrower fails to repay his amount or installment within the following time period then it will fall under the following classification status.

Legal Framework for Loan Recovery

After being classified, bank goes for loan recovery by legal action. Head office appoints legal advisers and advises to the branch to file a suit against the defaulted leaned. MBL generally suits files under the Artha Rin Adalat 1990. Besides, other loan recovery acts are as follows through these are not applicable in MBL.

  1. Public Demand Recovery Act-1913.
  2. Bankruptcy Act-1997.
  3. Negotiable Instrument Act-1881 section 138 for insufficient fund (In case of term loan).

Different Micro Credit Program

MBL provides different types of micro credit programs among the poor/mid/lower class categories person. Mainly the bank provides micro credit loan among the minimum and fixed income group of people.


Micro Credit Program of MBL

Mercantile Bank Limited is performing 5 types of Micro-Credit Program in the name of different head. These are:

  1. Consumer Credit scheme.
  2. Small Loan Scheme.
  3. Lease Finance.
  4. Doctors Loan Scheme and
  5. Rural Development Scheme.

Consumer Credit Scheme

Consumer Credit is a relatively new field of collateral free finance of Bank People with limited income can avail of this credit facility to buy households goods including car, computer and other consumer durable.

The main objective of this scheme is to help the lower mid class people for purchase different types of household equipments and also help to the mid class people for buy car/microbus for personal use.

MBL has some limitations to take loan under CCS. That is very much important to the bank to recover the loan/disbursement amount within due time. Some of them are:

  1. The consumer should be at least Govt. /Non-Govt. officer.
  2. In case of business, that should be established and the Bank should accept that.
  3. Applicants working place/business firm must be under Dhaka City Corporation.
  4. Applicant’s age limit should be 15 to 50.
  5. Guarantor should be sign in the Guarantor Latter and main application form where indicated.
  6. Working place/business firm of Guarantor must be under Dhaka City Corporation.
  7. Applicants will give two attested photographs.

Small Loan

This scheme has been evolved especially for small shopkeepers who need credit facility for their business and cannot provide tangible securities. Payment should be made by monthly within the 1st week of every month. Incase of car maximum loan amount can be 4 month installment amount is compound made. Lubricant facilities of this scheme are that the loan amount directly placed to the consumer account and not necessary and collateral security for this loan.

Lease Finance

This scheme has been designed to assist and encourage the genuine and capable entrepreneurs and professionals for acquiring capital machinery’s medical equipment, computers and other items which may help them to be economically self reliant. This scheme helps to improve of industries in the country.


Primary the applicant will mortgage his/her all documents of property and than land, Bank grantee, Shanchay Patra, LCD unit certificate etc.


Terms and condition of this scheme have been made easier than ever before in order to help the potential entrepreneurs to acquire equipment of production and services and repay the liability gradually from earning on the basis of Pay as you earn.

Interest Rate

Rate of return of Lease Finance per annum 16% and service charge 1% and risk fund 1% of Loan amount for one time Loan amount will be paid within 3 to 7 years depend on lease category.

Doctors’ Credit Scheme

Doctors Credit Scheme is designed to facilitate financing to new doctors, established doctors, Clinic and Hospitals with in easy terms. This scheme helps to make chamber, purchase treatment instruments etc for FCPS or postgraduate holder Doctors.

Loan Amount

For new Doctors Tk. 5 Lac, experienced doctors Tk. 15 Lac and for hospital clinic and diagnostics center Tk. 50 Lac.

Interest Rate

Rate of return of Doctors Loan scheme per annum 13% and risk fund 1000/- per 1,00,000/- for on time. Loan amount will be paid within 5 Years.

Rural Development Scheme

Rural Development Scheme has been evolved for the rural people o the country to make them self-employed through financing various incomes generating activities. This scheme is operated through the rural branches of Mercantile Bank Limited. This scheme tries to develop rural people and increase purchasing power among the rural branches of Mercantile Bank Limited.


MBL Position in Loan & Advances

A summary of loan disbursed by the MBL is shown below according to their nature:

Nature wise Loans & Advances

Table: Nature wise Loans & Advances of MBL

Demand Loan10,176,764,0008,136,182,0005,673,207,0003,526,330,000
Term Loans up to 5 Years7,203,875,0005,590,142,0004,519,403,0002,163,710,000
Term Loans above 5 Years-Staff loan2,966,876,1122,471,211,7372,041,081,0001,171,600,000

The different amount of loans and advances in 2005, 2006 and 2007 are given below


Loans, Cash Credit and Overdraft (Inside Bangladesh)

Table 14: Loans, Cash Credit and Overdraft of MBL

Loan General3,484,648,8593,798,084,2994,015,731,0551,488,418,882
Term Loan2,500,426,1771,095,944,846
Time Loan1,242,842,356402,563,672
SME Financing17,671,935
Packing Credit367,713,525266,915,201264,237,134220,487,135
Lease Finance254,250,158119,691,503107,938,877131,399,863
Hire Purchase2,145,276,3051,569,707,1571,669,656,3781,310,409,868
Cash Credit(Hypo)2,539,579,0172,350,827,1712,404,981,7771,669,482,337
Consumer Credit18,128,613121,477,709138,538,403169,983,183
House Building Loan1,214,092,106985,899,780962,105,696264,880,686
Staff Loan217,323,112115,524,73771,364,36363,762,979
EDF Loan64,987,099239,900,236194,693,855102,910,883
Other credit scheme176,628,569179,786,229112,777,74473,481,680
Personal Loan134,601,230105,137,18955,949,640
Credit Card24,477,6772,934,240315,732594,864
Total 242,000,261,3120,065,170,27316,766,308,54010,303,124,096

In the above table it is seen that the total loan and advances in 2005 was 20,065,170,273 which was6% higher than 2004, where loans and advances was 30%and in 2003 the loan and advance was 19% higher than 2002.  But from 2002 to 2005 MBL’s provided loan increased 15% to 36%, so we can conclude that the loan and advance offered have an attractive criteria or the management was good enough in offering the loans.


Provisions for Loans & Advances

Specific provision for Classified loan3274008368523,000,000342,800,000145,300,000
General provision for unclassified loan299338819214,338,819173,138,819103,138,819
Total provision3573347187737,338,819515,938,819248,438,819

Table  Provisions for Loans & Advances of MBL


General provision for Unclassified Loan and Advances

Provision held at the Beginning of the Year214338819173,138,,819103,138,81988,138,819
Additional Provision For The Year8500000041,200,00070,000,00015,000,000
General provision299338819214,338,819173,138,819103,138,819

Table: General provision for Unclassified Loan and Advances


Foreign Exchange Department

Foreign Exchange refers to the process or mechanism by which the currency of one country is converted into the currency of another country. Foreign exchange is the means and methods by which rights to wealth in a country’s currency are converted into rights to wealth in another country’s currency. The foreign exchange department of MBL Mohakhali Branch, Dhaka, is playing an important role in enhancing export earning, which aids economic growth and, will be helpful for economic boost. On the other hand, it also helps to meet those goods and services, which are more demanding and not adequate in our country.

Foreign exchange department of MBL, Mohakhali Branch and Dhaka has been divided into two sections:

  • Foreign Remittance
  • L/C Operation

Before going to detailed discourse let’s discuss some inevitable terms.


Forms of Documentary Credit

1) Revocable Credit

A revocable credit is one where the issuing banks at liberty to revoke i.e. cancels the credit at any time without prior notice.

2) Irrevocable Credit

An irrevocable L/C is one, which cannot be revoked, amended or modified by the bank with the concurrence of the interested parties.


Parties involved in the process of Letter of Credit

  • Importer (Buyer)/Applicant
  • The Issuing Bank (Opening Bank)
  • The Advising Bank/Notifying Bank
  • Exporter/Seller (Beneficiary)
  • Confirming Bank
  • Negotiating Bank
  • The Paying/Reimbursing/Accepting/Remitting Bank.

a) Applicant

The person/body (customer of the bank) who requests the bank (opening bank) to issue letter of credit. As per instruction and on behalf of the applicant, bank open L/C in line with the terms and conditions of the sales contract between the buyer and seller.

b) Opening bank/Issuing Bank

The bank which issues l/Cat the request of the applicant.

c) Advising/Notifying Bank

The bank which advises the L/C to the beneficiary on receipt of it from the Issuing bank.

d) Beneficiary

Beneficiary of the L/C is the party in whose favor the letter of credit is issued. Usually they are the seller or exporter.

e) Confirming Bank

The Bank, which is confirmation h add to an L/C and confirms payment of the L/C value to the beneficiary a the request of the Issuing bank.

f) Negotiating Bank

The Bank, which negotiates the documents submitted by the beneficiary against the L/c .

g) Reimbursing/Paying Bank

the bank which reimburses fund at the instruction of Issuing bank to the Negotiating bank.



  1. L/C opening
  2. Present Document
  3. Payment against document
  4. Confirming L/C
  5. Submit Documents
  6. Makers Payment
  7. Issue L/C
  8. Forward Document
  9. Makes payment

Application for opening L/C

At first, an importer will request banker to open L/C along with the following documents:

  • An application
  • Indent or preformed invoice
  • Import Registration Certificate (IRC)
  • Taxpayer’s Identification Number (TIN)
  • Insurance cover note with money receipt
  • A bank account in MBL O. R. Nizam Road Branch
  • Membership of Chamber of Commerce


Indent or Proforma invoice

Indent or Proforma Invoice is the sale contract between seller and buyer in import-export business. There is slight difference between indent and proforma invoice. The sales contract, which is direct correspondence between importer and exporter, is called Proforma invoice. There is no intermediary between them. On the other hand, they may be an agent of exporter in importer’s country. In this regard, if the sale contract is occurred between the agent of exporter and importer then it is called indent.

L/C Application Form

L/C Application form is a sort of an agreement between customer and bank, on the basis of which letter of credit is opened. MBL Mohakhali Branch, Dhaka provides a printed from for opening of L/C to the importer. A special adhesive stamp of value Tk. 150 is affixed on the form in accordance with Stamp Act in force. While opening, the stamp is cancelled. Usually the importer expresses his decision to open the L/C quoting the amount of margin in percentage. Usually the importer gives the following information:

  • Full name and address of the importer
  • Full name and address of the beneficiary
  • Draft amount
  • Availability of the credit by sight payment/acceptance/negotiation/deferred payment
  • Time bar within which the documents should be presented
  • Sales type (CIF/FORB/C&F)
  • Brief specification of commodities, price, quantity, indent number etc.
  • Country of origin
  • Bangladesh Bank registration no.
  • Import License/LCAF no.
  • IRC no.
  • Account no.
  • Documents no.
  • Insurance Cover Note/Policy no., date, amount
  • Name and address of Insurance Company
  • Whether the partial shipment is allowed or not
  • Last date of shipment
  • Last date of negotiation
  • Other terms and condition (if any)

Preparation of L/C by Banker

Bank’s officer prepares L/C when above-mentioned forms are to be submitted by customer or importer. Before preparing L/C MBL officer scrutinizes the application in the following manner.

  1. The terms and conditions of the L/C must be complied with UCPDC 500 and Exchange Control & Import Trade Regulation.
  2. Eligibility of the goods to be imported.
  3. The L/C must not be opened in favor of the importer.
  4. Radioactivity report in case of food item.

Survey reports or certificate in case of old machinery is required. Bank of the importer is called “L/C Issuing Bank”. Then issuing bank informs it’s corresponding bank, called “Advising Bank or Confirming Bank” located in exporter’s country to advise and the credit forward to he exporter and simultaneously officer makes L/C opening vouchers.

Desk Works

  • One debit voucher to be passed.
  • Corresponding credit voucher to be passed (margin, commission, postage, stamp, F.F.C. and others).
  • Liability voucher to be passed.

Submission of Necessary Documents by Exporter to the Negotiating Bank

As soon as the seller/exporter receives the credit and is satisfied that he can meet its terms and conditions, he is in position to load the goods and dispatch them. The seller then sends the documents evidencing the shipment to the bank.

Exporter will submit those documents in accordance with the terms and conditions as mentioned in L/C. generally the documents observed by me in the foreign exchange department are:

  • Bill of exchange
  • Commercial invoice
  • Bill of lading
  • Certificate of origin
  • Packing list
  • Clean Report of Finding (CRF)
  • Weight list
  • Insurance cover note
  • Pre-shipment certificate

Parties to Export Transactions

  1. L/C Issuing Bank
  2. Importer
  3. L/C Advising Bank
  4. Exporter
  5. Confirming Bank
  6. Negotiating Bank
  7. The Paying/Reimbursing Bank

A) Advising of Export L/C

The advising bank getting the import L/C sent by the issuing bank located abroad will advise the L/C to the beneficiary without any engagement or responsibly on their part. It will see the following only:

  1. Authenticity of L/C (Test agreed in case of Telex L/C and signature verified in case air mail L/C).
  2. Merchandise specified in the L/C is permissible and clauses incorporated in the L/C are not against country’s regulations.

 B) Add Confirmation of Export L/C

Bank may add additional confirmation to export L/C where there is specific instruction from the L/C issuing bank to do so. Additional confirmation of L/C gives the seller a double assurance of payment. Bank’s requirement of adding confirmation:

  1. Issuing Bank should be a reputed bank.
  2. Credit Line/Arrangement with the L/C issuing bank.
  3. L/C clauses are to be acceptable to confirming bank.
  4. Approvals from the competent authority for adding confirmation of export L/C.
  5. Confirmation charge is to be recovered as per rules.

C) Negotiating of Export L/C

Documents/Papers to be submitted by exporter to bank for negotiation/against export L/C. The exporter submits the documents to bank as per requirement of bank. List of export documents is as follows:

  • Export L/C
  • EXP Form
  • Bill of Exchange
  • Invoice
  • Bill of Lading
  • Packing List
  • Certificate of Origin
  • Inspection Certificate
  • Insurance Document
  • Weight List
  • Any other documents as per L/C

Bank must scrutinize all the documents stipulated in the credit with reasonable care to ascertain whether they confirm with the terms and conditions or not. If the documents are drawn strictly in terms of the credit, the bank may negotiate and pay the value of export bill to the exporter at:

  • OD buying rate (Sight Draft)
  • Usance rate (For DA Bill)
  • Appropriate rate (for DP Bill)

 Export Financing:

Financing of export credits is made in two stages:

  1. Pre-Shipment stage.
  2. Post-Shipment stage.

Packing Credit (Pre-Shipment Financing)

Packing credit is a short-term advance granted by a bank to an exporter against valid export L/C contract for the purpose of purchase of material or finished goods or manufacturing, processing, packing, transporting up to ware house/port of shipment etc., of exportable for export.

Voucher to be passed:

Packing Credit A/C ————— Dr.

Exporter’s A/C ——————– Cr.


FBP/FDBC A/C —————— Dr.

Packing credit ——————– Cr.

Income A/C interest on PC —– Cr.


Back-to-Back L/C (Pre-Shipment Financing)

Back-to-Back L/C means one credit backs another credit. It is new credit in favor of another beneficiary. Sometimes beneficiary/seller of a credit himself is unable to supply goods specified in the L/C and required to purchase from another supplier by opening second credit.

Besides, the normal formalities and requirements (for L/C opening) the following formalities and documents are also required of opening back-to-back L/C.

  • Master L/C
  • Valid bonded warehouse license
  • Quota allocation for quota items
  • ERC in addition to IRC
  • Indemnity/Undertaking
  • No objection from previous banker (if any)
  • Factory inspection certificate
  • BGMEA Membership

Payment of Import Bills

Payments of the import bills are at maturity from the relative export proceeds repatriated. The required foreign exchange for payment of import bills is kept in a separate account, out of repatriate proceeds of relative export party- wise funds are kept in FBPSAR (Foreign Bills Awaiting Remittance) account from export proceeds for payment of bills at maturity.


Foreign Remittance Section

Foreign remittance refers to the transfer of funds form one country to another which may be within the country or between two countries through banking channel post office or the informal channel. According to the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act 1947 Foreign Remittance means purchase and sale of freely convertible foreign currencies. Purchase of foreign currencies constitutes inward foreign remittance and sale of foreign currencies constitutes outward foreign currencies.

Foreign remittance is very important for the country as valuable foreign exchange is involved in the transfer mechanism. From the year 1990, financial liberalization has been started which is still going on. Due to liberalization, restrictions on foreign remittance become ease. Bangladesh take is convertible for current account transactions on March 24, 1994 with the view to achieve better exchange rate management system. And from April 1994 Bangladesh Government has accepted the status of Article VIII of international monetary fund. Mercantile Bank Ltd. plays an important role in foreign remittance activities both inward and outward. In MBL main components of foreign exchange remittance are T.T, M.T and Draf

Relevant Topics to Remittance

Buffering foreign remittance and outward remittance, We have to no some relevant tropics in brief discussion.

Authorized Dealer (AD) Branches: Authorized dealer branches of the bank are those who are permitted by the Bangladesh Bank to deal in foreign exchange business subject to the fulfillment of foreign exchange rules and regulations of the country.

Agency Arrangement: Agency arrangement may be made between local bank and foreign bank to facilitate foreign exchange business throughout the world. However, in case of agency arrangement accounting relationship may or may not be made.

Drawing rrangement: Drawing arrangement is made to facilitate remittances through concluding accounting relationship between a bank & corresponding bank or exchange house.

NOSTRO Account: The account that is maintained in another bank in foreign by the local bank is known as NOSTRO account.

VOSTRO Account: The account that is maintained in local bank by the foreign bank is known as VOSTRO account.

LORO Account: When the third party maintains account is known as LORO account.


Foreign Inward Remittance

Foreign Inward Remittance refers to the currency / remittance in foreign currency that is received from abroad to our country. In case of foreign inward remittance, TT, MT, Draft etc are drawn in local bank by the foreign banks of exchange houses. When a local bank

Purchases foreign bills, TCs and cash foreign currency is also known as inward remittance. A local bank also receives indenting commission of local firm, trademarks, patent fee etc.


Inward Remittance can be classified into two groups

  1. Visible Inward Remittance such as export proceeds.
  2. Invisible Inward Remittance such as family maintenance, constancy fee etc.

Purposes of Inward Remittance

  • Family maintenance.
  • Donation.
  • Indenting commission.
  • Gift.
  • Foreign investment.
  • Export proceeds.
  • Other.

Mode of Inward Remittance

  • Telegraphic Transfer (TT).
  • Mail Transfer (MT).
  • Foreign Demand Draft (FDD).
  • Foreign Currency Notes.
  • Travelers Cheques (TC).
  • Payment Order (PO).
  • Cover of Export.

Problems regarding to Inward Remittance

  • Name of the beneficiary, account no. Or correct branch name may not be given in the TT. Those are the required particulars of the beneficiary.
  • Further geniuses or signature of drafts may be forged.

In case of payment, sometimes branches of the bank may create certain problem:

  • Delay in making payment against remittance to the beneficiary.
  • Without ascertain genuinely, drafts may be paid.
  • Lack of timely response/communication against the queries of remitter/ beneficiary.
  •  Credit TRV’s may not be timely sent to head office. Moreover particulars may not be given in the TRV’s.

If beneficiary is not available, inward remittance may be cancelled. If an inward remittance already reported to Bangladesh Bank is cancelled either in full or in part become of non-availability of beneficiary. The authorized dealer must report the cancellation of the remittance as an outward remittance on TM form.


Foreign Outward Remittance

Remittance that is made from our country to abroad is called Outward Remittance. This remittance includes issuance of TT, MT, FDD issued by local banks on foreign banks. Further it includes rate of foreign currency, notes, TC’s, reimbursements against import, bills retired etc.

Outward Remittance can be classified into two groups

  1. Visible Outward Remittance such as payment against import
  2. Invisible Outward Remittance such as membership fee, subscription fee etc.

Purposes of Outward Remittance

  • Traveling purpose.
  • Educational purpose.
  • Attending seminar and workshop.
  • Medical treatment.
  • Business travel quota.
  • Evaluation fee.
  • Membership fee.
  • Pre-shipment fee.
  • Advertising of Bangladeshi commodities.

In case of purchase of foreign currency, an applicant must be made to an authorized dealer and if necessary requires to Bangladesh Bank. The prescribed application form like IMP form and for other types of remittance TM form is needed for payment against import.

Mode of Outward Remittance

  • Foreign Telegraphic Transfer (FTT).
  • Foreign Mail Transfer (FMT).
  • Foreign Demand Draft (FDD).
  • Foreign Currency Notes.



Mercantile Bank Limited has gained firm confidence in the minds of its clients within a short period of its operation. The bank is in its growth phase. The profit is increasing every year, as the profit generating mechanism is efficient in the organization. In this paper efforts were taken to go in depth regarding the factors that are contributing in-profit generation.

Clients are interested to continue the banking in MBL. In tern they are going to inform others to join in the banking with it. Different services provided by the bank are also well appreciated by its clients. This will help the bank to get more deposit and to earn profit. Clients will do this favor because they are also getting speedy and professional service from the bank. Comfortable internal environment, cooperative officers and attractive benefits will attract the clients towards MBL.

The major contributing factor for profit generation is the interest earned from prudent lending. Loans and advance facilities by the bank help in increasing the amount of profit. To assess the suitability trained and well-experienced human resources are required. With out matures handling loans can bring disaster for the bank also.



In order to continue the existing trend of growth and profit generation Following are recommended for MBL:

  • From the survey as well axiom available data it was found that there are scope to increase the amount of loans and advances by MBL. To increase earning and profit disbursement of loans and advances can be increased further.
  • From clients survey it was revealed that there is possibility to increase the remittance service by increasing no of branches around the country. To increase earnings from remittance services MBL can open new branches in important commercial centers around the country
  • From the survey it was found that foreign exchange related activities increase the earnings for the bank. In view of that MBL can take an effort to authorize all the branches to deal with foreign exchanges.
  • Clients are satisfied by the services provided by MBL. This reputation should be maintained all through. For that management should constantly monitor the reaction of the clients as they are the asset for the bank.
  • As the numbers of customers are increasing day by day so to keep commitment MBL should also increase their efficient manpower.
  • Management should also place right person to the right place.
  • MBL should up-to-date with currently use of IT in banking sectors like done by other banks.
  • Fund management of the bank should be more efficient.
  • ATM facility is not so easy for MBL. So they are loosing many potential customers. They should also take necessary steps regarding this concern.