Different Tools Responsible for Reducing Production

Different Tools Responsible for Reducing Production


Every organization and company hasan aim or target to satisfy their customer by giving services or product with considering their own benefit. The textile industry produces different types of product to satisfy their customer. And by giving production not only the owner of the company become beneficial but also the government and the country. But how much benefit they can achieve, is it according to ratio of their capacity? No they do not get because, thought they have huge ability or capacity to produce different product they do not get target production for different obstruct.

Back ground:

For the last few years, production and productivity is the hot issue for each companies either it is textile or chemical or fertilizer, to raise the production and production per unit is discussed. If we see productivity is the ratio of output per unit of input. If we take the labour productivity as an example that means ratio of output per labour hour. Productivity measures in different ways like in a factory how many hours does it take to produce the product? Productivity depends on different things or factors like labour, machinery, capital, temperature, raw materials quality etc. so every factor has its own contribution.

In textile, production and productivity has great influence on fabric production. Optimizing the output in this sector is a big challenge; to achieve this goal the role of an individual person regarding the production department has a great importance.

Bangladesh which is a good exporter of textile, textile export has the value of 75% of its total revenue. For such a sector which is in a huge volume, productivity issues or factors must be on top of its list and not be neglected. Working on these productivity factors textiles productions can be improved.


The purpose of this thesis is to find the different factors which can influence the production of fabric. So, working on them we can improve or enhance the production and productivity but this is a big challenge to do this. Textile spinning and weaving is a big area of research. So the main aim of this project is to discover the factors which can improve the productivity of fabric production.


This project only focuses on fabric production although there are many other sectors where research is to be carried out but our thesis here emphases on fabric production. Spinning, finishing, dyeing or printing can also be considered for research in textile sector.


This research work is based on the weaving sector of Bangladesh Textile Industry. The material and literature is taken from different sources like books, magazines, electronic journals and websites etc. Moreover, some data is taken from interviews conducted from managers of these sectors. Then, we analyzed which are the most important factors and took some experimental results. Further, this data is discussed in the form of report and made some suggestions and finally concluded the result.

Chapter 02

Literature Survey


Production is defined as a process developed to transform a set of inputs like men, materials, money, materials, machinery and energy into a specified set of outputs like finished products and services in desired quantity and quality in order to achieve the objectives of the enterprise.

For optimum production in any industry, proper way of utilization of men, machine and raw materials should be present. Production planning anticipates the possible difficulties before the start of actual production. Planning process is done in advance so that production is carried out in most economical and best way. Production control ensures that the production is up to the quality at the right time. I.e. Plan your work and then work your plan.

Types of Production

Different types of production are

  1. Flow/Continuous Production.
  2. Intermittent Production.

Flowchart of different production

Flow/Continuous Production

Continuous or flow production refers to the manufacturing of large quantities of a single or at most a very few varieties of products with a standard set of processes and sequences. The work flows through a series of interconnected operations in such a way that the material passes from one stage to another without waiting or interruption. Steel mills, automobile plants, chemical plants etc. are examples of this type of production system.

Intermittent Production

Intermittent production situations are those where the facilities must be flexible enough to handle a variety of products and sizes, or where the basic nature of the activity imposes change of important characteristics of the input. In instances such as these, no single sequence pattern of operations is appropriate, so the relative location of the operation must be a compromise that is best for all inputs considered together. Here the basic product design changes from time to time. Therefore, facilities should be flexible enough to handle a wide variety of products and of different shapes and sizes. Intermittent production may be of two types, namely, job production and batch production.

Factors of production

  • Nature – natural resources
  • Labour – human effort
  • Capital – factory building, machinery, tools, raw materials, etc.
  • Enterprise – activity that organizes other factors of production into an operating unit.


Productivity is the quality or state of being productive. It is a concept that guides the management of production system and measures its success. It is a quality that indicates how well labor, capital, materials or energy are utilized. Productivity can also be defined as the ratio between output and input.

Productivity Index (Kinds of Productivity Measure)

  Labor Inputs and Labor Productivity:

The labor input is usually measured in terms of man-hours, where output can be measured in total quantity.

Factors affecting Productivity

Factors influencing productivity can be classified broadly into two categories, namely controllable or internal factors and non-controllable or external factors.

Controllable or Internal Factors

۞   Product factor:

Product is judged by its usefulness. The cost benefit factor of a product can be enhanced by increasing the benefit at the same cost or by reducing cost for the same benefit.

۞   Plant and equipment:

The increased availability of plant through proper preventive maintenance and reduction of idle time increases the productivity. Productivity can be increased by paying proper attention to utilization, age, cost, etc.

۞   Technology:

Innovative and latest technology improves productivity to a greater extend. Automation and information technology helps to achieve improvements in material handling, storage, communication system and quality control.

Material and energy: Efforts to reduce material and energy consumption brings about considerable improvement in productivity.

۞   Human factors:

Productivity is basically dependent upon human competence and skill. Ability to work effectively is governed by various factors like education, training, experience, etc. of the employees.

۞   Work Methods:

Improving the ways in which the work is done improves productivity. Work study and industrial engineering techniques and training are the areas, which improve the work methods which in term enhances the productivity.

Management Style: A flexible and dynamic management style is a better approach to achieve higher productivity.

Non-controllable or External Factors

۞   Structural adjustment:

It includes both economic and social changes. Economic changes that influence significantly are: shift in employment from agricultural to manufacturing industry; import of technology; industrial competiveness. Social changes such as education, women’s participation in the labor force etc are some of the factors that play a significant role in the improvement of productivity.

 ۞   Natural resources:

Manpower, land and raw materials play a vital role in the improvement of productivity.

۞ Government and infrastructure:

Government policies and programs, practices of government agencies, transportation etc influence productivity to a greater extend.

Difference between Production and Productivity

Production is a value addition process. Production system is an organized process of conversion of raw materials into useful finished products as shown in the figure below.

Production of any commodity or services is the volume of output irrespective of the quantity or quality of resources employed to achieve that level of output. Productivity comes in effect when the element of efficiency with which the resources are employed is put forth.

Types of fabric

  1. Woven
  2. Knitted
  3. Nonwoven

Although there are different types of fabric, here we work on woven fabric

Woven fabric:

Woven fabric is a cloth formed by weaving. It only stretches diagonally on the bias directions (between the warp and weft directions), unless the threads are elastic.

Woven fabrics are worked on a big loom and made of many threads woven on a warp and a weft.

 Operation involve in woven fabric

In woven fabric production there are different operations are involved according fabric and factory requirement. Giving a list of basic operations whose are important for our study.

                                                                    I.            Warping

                                                                  II.            Sizing

                                                               III.            Drawing denting

                                                               IV.            Weaving


Flowchart of weaving production process

 Key wards:

ð  Weaving

ð  Production

ð  Productivity

ð  Financial causes

ð  Energy causes

ð  Maintenance causes

ð  Manpower management

ð  Raw material causes

ð  Mechanical or machinery causes

ð  Labour causes

ð  Planning causes

Chapter 03


 Types of causes

At first we have divided all causes whose are responsible for reducing production and productivity in two groups according there characteristic, whose are

  1. Common causes in different operation
  2. Individual causes in different operation

Flowchart of different tools or causes whose are responsible for reducing production and productivity

Common causes:

By this type of causes we want to comprehendthose causes whose effect is same in every operation in production and hamper production and productivity. Giving some example of that type of cause,

1)    Financial problem

2)    Energy causes

3)    Maintenance causes

4)    Manpower management.

5)    Understanding between different levels in an industry

Different common causes in production whose are responsible for reducing production and productivity

 Financial problem:

Capital is the first requirement of a production. If the capital is not available or sufficient it is not possible to collect raw material, labour and it is not possible to arrange machine or machinery, ultimately production is not possible for why financial problem plays a most important role on every operation of production.

Maintenance causes:

Maintenance means take care of machinery. The objective of maintenance is to keep the machine at the state in which it can perform its required function. The main purpose of maintenance is to minimize the operating cost and to improve the quality and reduces the chances of stoppage of machine. In a weaving mill, work is being done in three shifts. Normally maintenance department is responsible for checking the machinery working condition. Maintenance includes tasks such as lubricating, adjusting, and replacing parts.Depending on machine type and quality the maintenance operation is done in different time period. Sometime people think do not need to take care machinery it is cost full and to take care machine have to remain stop and production will be loss it is a wrong consideration.If the machinery is not maintenance properly after a period of time it will be fully damage and then the machine cannot repair or a huge amount of will be needed to repair.

Giving an example:

Let total cost of a set of electric part is 1, 00000 taka.

And the maintenance cost of that part is 200 taka per week and require 1 hour per maintenance.

A machine may run till a long time without maintenance.

Let the parts is burn with short-circuit for not maintenance till 6 month.

Now, the total maintenance cost for 6 month is = (200×4×6) = 4800 taka and time is 4×6=24 hour

To save 4800 taka and 24 hours production the parts is burn and to run the machine have to cost 100000 taka and minimum 7days that means (7×24)=168 hour to collect and buy the new parts

Calculating the production of 24 and 168 hours

For 24 hours,

=466.67 yds


=23333.5 taka

For 168 hours,

=3266.67 yds


=163333.5 taka



PPM = 700

PPI= 60

Weaving charge per yard = 50 taka

 Now we can see,

If the machine is maintenance regularly,

The cost and loss will be 4800+23333.5=28133.5 taka


If the machine is not maintenance,

The cost and loss will be 100000+163333.5=263333.5 taka

We  see the cost, time and production loss for maintenance and not maintenance a machine for 6 month but the machine may damage before 6 months, then the figure will be more worst.

Man power management:

Man power is a most important fact for all operation in production without people production is not possible to achieve target production the people that mean labour, supervisor, production officer, production manager have to set properly. Insufficient and inexpert never can give expected production and productivity.

Energy causes:

Energy (electricity, gas,air) is the one of most important fact of production. If a machine or a labour does not work properly another machine or labour can give production but if energy is not present any machine or labour cannot give any production from any operation.

Sometime for lack of energy different types of material (such as size pest) have to waste for not using at proper time so productivity will decrease.

Giving an example:

We know the production time of a factory is 24 hour

If energy (electricity/gas/air) is not available for 1 hour

We can calculate the production will be loss:

So we can say energy can play an important role on production and productivity

Understanding between different levels in an industry:

A factory is run with the coordination of different level of people such as

Y  Management

Y  Officer

Y  Supervisor

Y  Labour

Relation between all level of level people depend on the behave, attitude mentality of the people and there is a great effect on production and productivity of this relation such as

  If all of the people do not work cooperatively they cannot enjoy their work. They only attend in their work but do not get any responsibility and do not work willingly.

  Again if there is any misunderstanding between them, then everyone try to abolish another’s reputation by doing unexpected work. For why they have not any feelings on production and do not effort to increase production which is indirectly reduce ultimate production and productivity.

 Individual causes:

By this type of causes we want to comprehendthose causes whose effect is different in every operation in production ultimately whole production. Giving some example of that type of cause,

1)    Raw material causes

2)    Mechanical or machinery causes

3)    Labour causes

4)    Planning causes

Different operations in weaving and there Individualcauses whose are responsible for reducing production and productivity


Warping is a process of transferring yarn from a predetermined number of single-end packages, such as cones or cheeses, into a sheet of parallel yarns of a specified length and width. The individual warp yarns are uniformly spaced across the whole width of the beam. In warping, the sheet of parallel yarns is wound onto a flanged beam called a warper’s beam. The function of warping is primarily to transfer large lengths of yarns from a number of large wound packages to a warper’s beam containing a predetermined number of yarn ends (threads), so that it runs without interruption at a high speed. Removing faults from yarns during warping is not recommended because it affects the efficiency of the process. A single break makes several hundred other good warp yarns inoperative, thus affecting productivity.

Different causes of warping whose are responsible for reducing production and productivity

Raw material causes:

In warping the raw material is the yarn or yarn package it may be different package or categories. The main raw material causes for reducing of warping production and is breakage of warp yarn. When there occurs a single yarn breakage the whole production remains stop until repairing the breakage and restart the machine. And when the breakage is repaired and at least a minimum length of yarn is wastage for knotting the broken yarn for why reduce productivity of warping. The amount of wastage for knotting of broken yarn depend on causes for breakage

There are different causes for breakage of yarn such as

  Weak yarn

  Thick or thin place in yarn

  Broken yarn in package

  Strength of yarn

  Hairy yarn

When there occurs a breakage for thick or thin place or large amount of hairy yarn, the yarn is engaged in dents of comb a more amount of yarn is rip to join the breakage then the other breakage so if this type of defect occur frequently production and productivity reduce proportionally to the rate or number of breakage.

Breakage calculation,

Number of total ends: 7510

Number of yarn per warper beam: 626

Number of creel: 12

Length: 4450 yards

Total breakage: 201

Machine speed: 300yds per minute

Now, total length: number of total ends × length

                           : 7510 × 4450

                           : 33419500

     Breakage in 33419500 yards length = 201

\Breakage in   1000000 yards length

                                                         = 6.01

From this set of production we can calculate how breakage rate of warping reduce production.

            Without breakage to complete this set required time is

                                    (Total warping length ÷ machine speed)+ creeling time

                                    = {(12×4450) ÷300} + 60 minute.

                                    = 238 minute (3 hours 58 minute)

            With breakage to complete this set required time is

                        Without breakage required time +breakage repairing time

= 238 minute + 402 minutes

=640 minute (11 hour 40 minute)

For breakage required extra time is = 640-238 = 402 minute

For 6.01% breakage rate the production is losing


                        = 62.81 %

Giving some example of breakage rate whose are classified depending on yarn manufacture company name and their yarn count and warping machine speed.



































































































































































                                                                                                                Data source: SIM FABRICS LIMITED

So we can say if the breakage rate of warping is increase the production and productivity will be decrease.

Mechanical causes:

At the time of warping production different type of mechanical causes or defect may be face whose are responsible for reducing production such as sometime

  The breakage indicator does not work properly

  Sometime machine speed meter, tension meter, or pressure roller does not work properly

  Different indicator show wrong reading.

We know the machine speed,  tension or pressure is varied depending on the number of yarn in warper beam and count of yarn, if the given speed or tension or pressure does not work accurately for over speed or tension yarn will be breakage randomly and for low tension the yarn sheet will be engaged together. And if breakage occurs, production and productivity will be reduced. So the machine and mechanical defect also responsible for reducing production and productivity.

Labour causes:

At the time of warping worker that means labour can play an important role on production and productivity. The total production and productivity depending on two things of workers whose are,

  Performance and


Performance that means experience is an important things such as to complete a set of creeling two expert labours need 1 hour where two inexpert labour waste 2 or 3 hour because expert labour can knot 35 to 40 yarn in per minute where inexpert labour need a lot of time depending on their experience it may be 15 to 20 knot per minute.

Another is worker willingness.If labour wants to increase production and productivity they can increase at a high range.

 Planning causes:

In warping a set of function is involve in a production such as creeling, knotting,reed preparation and so on. Planning is an important thing in production and productivity such as

   If the program is not prepared before completing the previous program the machine remain stop for programming to production.

  Again if a wrong program or incorrect program is prepared for a production and production is start and if it is required to correction here the whole production remains stop until correction and preparation new creel and machine restart;

Here a large amount of time will be waste to correct creeling and knotting for corrected program and production rate will be decreases. And for running a wrong program the whole yarn will be wastage and that reduce the productivity.


We know sizing is the heart of weaving. The primary purpose of sizing is to produce warp yarns that will weave satisfactorily without suffering any consequential damage due to abrasion with the moving parts of the loom. The other objective, though not very common in modern practice, is to impart special properties to the fabric, such as weight, feel, softness, and handle. However, the aforementioned primary objective is of paramount technical significance and is discussed in detail herein.

During the process of weaving, warp yarns are subjected to considerable tension together with an abrasive action. A warp yarn, during its passage from the weaver’s beam to the fell of the cloth, is subjected to intensive abrasion against the whip roll, drop wires, heddle eyes, adjacent heddles, reed wires, and the picking element. The intensity of the abrasive action is especially high for heavy sett fabrics. The warp yarns may break during the process of weaving due to the complex mechanical actions consisting of cyclic extension, abrasion, and bending. To prevent warp yarns from excessive breakage under such weaving conditions, the threads are sized to impart better abrasion resistance and to improve yarn strength. The purpose of sizing is to increase the strength and abrasion resistance of the yarn by encapsulating the yarn with a smooth but tough size film. The coating of the size film around the yarn improves the abrasion resistance and protects the weak places in the yarns from the rigorous actions of the moving loom parts.

 The functions of the sizing operation are

  1. To lay in the protruding fibers in the body of the yarn and to cover weak places by encapsulating the yarn by a protective coating of the size film. The thickness of the size film coating should be optimized. Too thick a coating will be susceptible to easy size shed-off on the loom.
  1. To increase the strength of the spun warp yarn without affecting its extensibility. This is achieved by allowing the penetration of the size into the yarn. The size in the yarn matrix will tend to bind all the fibers together. The increase in strength due to sizing is normally expected to be about 10 to 15% with respect to the strength of the unsized yarn. Excessive penetration of the size liquid into the core of the yarn is not desirable because it affects the flexibility of the yarn.
  1. To make a weaver’s beam with the exact number of warp threads ready for     weaving.

Different causes of sizing whose are responsible for reducing production and productivity

Raw material causes

There are certain major raw material defects on beam warpers whose are basically occur during warping operation and when with those defect the warper beams areused as raw material of sizing operation different problems are occur in sizing operation such as yarns are engaged in creel, all yarn are not remain parallel and so on and when those problems are repaired total sizing machine have to stop for why production of sizing is damaged and at the time of repairing it may be a hues amount of raw material have to cut down and productivity is loss

The raw material defectsof sizing are basically warper beam defect areidentified below,

  Lapped Ends:

The broken end of yarn is not tied to the end on the warp beam and overlaps the adjoining yarn.


Yarn ends are drawn from the middle and the broken end is not correctly pieced up to the adjoining yarn.

   Broken ends on the beam:

It occurs due to reasons mentioned in the above point. A group of ends is broken and tied as a bunch or worked-in with overlapping.

   Yarn cut at the butts of the warp beam/ slackness of extreme yarns:

It occurs when the reed is improperly set with respect to the warp beam flanges or there is a deformation of the warp beam flange.

   Conical winding on the beam:

It occurs due to incorrect load applied by the pressure roller.

   Slacks & irregular yarn tension:

It happens due to any one of these reasons- improper threading of the yarn into the tension devices, ejection of yarn from under the disc of the yarn tensioning device, or yarn tension devices of poor quality.

   Frequent yarn breakages at the beam edges:

It results due to burrs and nicks on the surface of the warp beam flanges.

   Coarse Knots:

It is due to manual tying-up.

   Loose yarn winding:

It happens when the pressure roller is lightly pressed against the warp roller.

   Bulgy winding on the warp beam:

It is due to irregularlying of yarn ends in the reed of warping, missing a dent and placing two ends in the adjoining yarn

If the above problems are present in warping beam then the sizing operation cannot done properly. Because if the defected warper beam is run in machine with accurate speed and tension the yarn sheet may be breakage or loose yarn will be engaged in sizing reed and to prepare the breakage or engaged yarn the machine is needed to stop and this way production is hampered

Planning causes:

In sizing operation there are not major role of planningin production and productivity. Then there are some impacts of planning on sizing such as

  Give correct and sequence wise program to continue production and give accurate recipe to proper size.If yarn is not proper size the yarn is not possible to use in weaving so it is a most important thing in sizing.

  To select the expert sizing operator

  Give required helper to operate the machine

If the above requirement is not fulfill the production and productivity of sizing will be decrease.

Labour or operator causes:

Though sizing is a part of weaving but sizing is the most important thing of weaving. If sizing is perfect, ultimately the weaving will be good otherwise not and the whole responsibility of sizing depend on labour or operator because the sizing operation is carried on depending on experience of sizing operator.We know we can measured the size take-up percent by weighting the yarn before and after sizing but the operator can identify the condition of size yarn at the time of sizing so the sizing quality fully depend on operator.

If they are expert they can give good quality output and if there are lacks of experience they cannot identify the quality of sizing. So the production and productivity of sizing depend of operator experience.

Mechanical causes:

In a sizing machine different unit/zone are present for different work such as

1. Creels—unwinding zone

2. Size boxes—sizing zone

3. Drying cylinders—drying zone

4. Bust rods—splitting zone

5. Head stock—weaver’s beam preparation zone

6. Controls and instrumentations

All of the parts or zone of sizing machine has different importance in sizing without any one sizing cannot done and if any problem in any parts of those sizing cannot done properly.

Giving some example of mechanical causes of sizing machine whose are hamper production or responsible for reducing production and productivity.

  Unwinding zone:

Though the unwinding is done negatively that means the yarn is unwound with the tension of yarn but braking to stop the machine is done positively that means with the help of break.  Sometime the brake become hard or loose for why the sizing machine is not possible high speed.

  • If brakes become hard, for high speed yarn may be breakage for high tension
  • If brakes become loose, machine cannot stop immediately for breakage

  Drying zone:

Drying zone is used to dry the yarn after immersion and squeezing in size pest. Sometime the yarn is not dry properly for insufficient amount steam or insufficient supply of steam. For why machine cannot run proper speed and have to run slowly for proper drying.

Cooking zone:

In cooking zone that means cooking bath the size pest is prepared, here sometime the temperature do not control properly or the size supply line become blocked for engaged with size pest. And for why at a proper time proper amount of size material cannot supply at size box.

Drawing denting &knotting:

This process consists of threading through each drop wire, healed wire and reed dent depending on style and size of machine. This operation is carried out manually and now a day’s automatic drawing machines are available.

When the fabric is mass produced and weaver beam is about to finish then, new weaver beam is placed on the loom having same ends, each end is tied to its corresponding end of loom. This process is carried out through knotting machine

            Though there are automatic drawing denting in our country but in maximum factory drawing denting is done manually. For manual drawing denting there are not more reason to reduce production and productivity. It fully depends on labour. Such as the experience of labour and the number of labour (working).

            If the labour of drawing denting are expert on there on work and if the work willingly considering time and waist of beam length by cutting down they can totally control their production and productivity of drawing denting

Knotting is a done by a knotting machine. There are some reasons in knotting operation to reduce production and productivity such as performance of knotting operator and accuracy of knotting machine,

Labour causes:

knotting is a highly sensitive work because in this operation a set of huge numbersof yarn is placed horizontally considering construction EPI of fabric and a another set of same number of yarn is placed on the before set of yarn fully manually and then those two sets of yarn are knotted by a knitting machine.

  If the placement of two sets of yarn are varied the knotting is not done properly and again all the yarn have to place considering requirement and the whole process of one or two hours have to done and the weaving machine remain stop up to fulfill knotting operation correctly a huge time will be waste with a few length of warp yarn.

   Sometime again knotting is not possible for cutting down of previous yarn. And to running that program drawing denting have to be must which is a operation of minimum 8 hours.

 Mechanical causes:

The knotting operation is done by a knotting machine. Sometime the accuracy of knotting machine not remain perfect then the machine knot different sets of yarn together and for why that is not possible to run weaving machine and loss production and productivity.

Planning causes:

Thereis a major point which is highly responsible for reducing productivity which is mixing of different program in same machine continuously,

  If the number of total ends of a program is less than the previous operation there is no problem but

  If that is more than previous operation then the yarn whose will not be knotted with previous yarn those all are will be wastage according their whole length.


Weaving is the interlacement of warp and weft yarn. The machine which is used for this process is call loom; both yarns are interlaced at right angle, warp yarn is working in vertical direction while weft yarn is inserting in horizontal direction

 Factors Affecting Production and Productivity in a Weaving


Production and productivity is greatly influenced by the machinery efficiency,

  If the machine has the latest model then definitely the production and productivity will be high,

  Sometime maintenance of the modern machine may be complicated it also impact production and productivity so for high production and productivity machine should be modern but not complicated.Multiphase and air jet loom has the highest weft insertion rate.

If the machines have proper maintenance then, the breakage of weft yarn will be low. Breakage is the important factor to optimize the production and productivity, less breakage of weft yarn is the guarantee of more productivity ratio. In this competitive market many types of looms are available in the market but those looms are preferred whose yield is high and has best production results.

Labour causes

Labour is the strength of a company or factory. But worker should have some quality and experience, without those the worker cannot be strength for a company. Company want to production and which is done worker/ labour. Mainly two things of worker are most important to consideration worker and production.

  • Skilled labour and their capacity is an important factor.
  • Labour personal involvement

If the labours are well trained and aware of machine operations then production rate will be high. Labours carelessness or ignorance during production process affected the production efficiency or production rate.

When machine stops due to breakage or any other reason than delay of restarting the machine has an impact on production. Sometimes it happens due to negligence of workers because they don’t start the machine at the right time.

Furthermore, more labour on one machine cannot give the guarantee of high productivity while on the other side competent labour can give the better results.

Temperature causes

In weaving shed, temperature (humidification factor) has great impact on the production. In weaving process, the yarn faces different tensions and friction forces. So, temperature in this environment should be maintained. If the temperature is exceeded than the standard temp, then breakage will be increased and production efficiency will be decreased and as a result whole production will be disturbed.

Raw material causes

This is observed that raw material quality has the key importance in production process, like from where the yarn is buying and who is supplier? If raw material is of high quality then the chances of breakage and error would be minimum. There will be cost factor issue in this regard because for high quality raw material have to pay more but on the other hand this will compensate in the form of high production.

A satisfactory weaver’s beam should unwind well on the loom for running weavingloom properly. Giving some faults of weaving raw material whose occur during sizing operation whose responsible for reducing production and productivity.

  Density of sized beams: A loosely packed weaver’s beam does not work well.

  Repeating warp streaks: This defect is due to uneven tension in the pre-beam.

  Ridge Beam: This fault occurs due to uneven distribution of yarn in wraith.

  Hard sizing: If the size materials are applied too much, the size becomes hard which causes hard sizing.

  Improper drying:

Under drying ® Bacteria form ® yarn breakage

Over drying® Hard sizing.

  Uneven sizing:

Due to over or under sizing.

Due to over or under concentration of size liquor.

  Size stitching: Due to improper drying after sizing.

  Broken ends, missing ends, crossed ends, sticky ends

All of the above faults are responsible for reducing production and productivity by breakage of warp yarn in weaving loom.

 Energy issue

In weaving, energy is used in terms of machines operations, for air conditioning, compressors and other production areas etc. Two types of energy sources are used in a weaving mill like electrical and thermal energy. For machine operations, air conditioning and for illumination electrical energy is used but for sizing thermal energy is used. If the looms are old model then energy consumption will be more as compare to the latest machinery. So, latest machinery can save the energy consumption and definitely improve the production rate.

Chapter 04

Result and Discussion


The common causes such as financial problem,energy causes,maintenance causes, manpower management, and relation between different levels in an industry affect the production and productivity as a same way in different operation in production. But the effect of indvidual defects such as raw material causes, mechanical or machinery causes, labour causes, planning causesare different because the raw material, machineries, labour activities, plan of programs and the application of different operations is different. Though the effect of individual causes are different but all of them are responsible for reducing production and productivity it may be individually or composedly.

To establish and spread a factory the first requirement is the investment for its cost. The cost is two types those are fixed cost that means initial cost and variable cost. If the supply of investment for all cost is not get properly or sufficiently the factory cannot possible to run properly for why the production rate become fall.

Electricity, gas and air are the energy for a factory without supplying all of them quietly the production is not possible, ultimately total production fall down.

Maintenance is required to fit the machine for production it is cost full also it loss production but if the maintenance is not done according machine requirement the whole machine or valuable parts of machine may be damage and effect on production.

Manpoweris a most valuable part for production. If it is not possible to select expert and sufficient people there is a possibility to run machine but it is not possible to get target production.

Relation between different levels of people is an also important fact. If relation between all of them is not good they do not enjoy their work and they have no interest to production and to increase the production, for why production may be decreases.

In warping the main causes of reducing production and productivity is breakage. The causes of breakage are use of low quality and defected yarn as a row material and variation of speed & tension of the machine according to the yarn quality. And this variation is done by operator. So all of those are responsible for reducing production and productivity.

In sizing operation a large amount of the production and productivity is controlled by operator. If they are not expert about sizing it is not possible to get accurate production and productivity. There is another thing to consider which is machinery. If the operator is expert and machine is not perfect, acceptable production and productivity is not possible to get.

The drawing and denting is done manually and for why the production and productivity fully depend on experience of labour. If labour are expert desired production can be get and otherwise not. The effect in knotting is same there is a another considerable thing in knotting which is machine, if the machine performed well production will be good otherwise not.

Weaving is the last operation for fabric production. In weaving warp yarn breakage, machine performance and labour experience are mainly responsible for not getting accurate production and productivity. Tension, friction,quality of yarn and the quality of sizing are mainly responsible for breakage of warp yarn. For lack of experience and unwillingness working time in work study of a lobour will be increased with decreasing production and productivity.

From the above discussion we can say all the causes of reducing production and productivity in different operation in weaving are included in man machine material, money and managementissues showing in a flow chart.


From our point of view the most important factor is the quality of raw material. If raw material is of good quality then production will be good which results in the form of high productivity. In many factories they have good machine set up but they are using cheap raw material using cheap yarn for fabric manufacturing. As a result their production cannot continue in any operation for breakage.

 The other important thing is having skilled worker. It is also a core issue to relate productivity with profit. Some company think that if they decrease their labour magnitude then the profit will be increased because they are thinking that we can save money from their salaries. We think less or more labour is not guaranteed success factor for profitability. If workers are properly trained and skilled then probability of profitability will automatically increase.

            There is another important thing is maintenance. Some people think machines are new so no need to waste money by maintenance and machine remain stop for maintenance, this is wrong decision. We know it is cost full to maintenance a machine and it also loss production but it can save the machine from damage and increase the machine lifetime.

Bangladeshi textile industry is facing many problems due to Bangladeshi economic setbacks. Energy issue is one of the biggest issues which textile sector is facing. Large number of firms was closed due to the energy crisis, as machines couldn’t run to get the desired production.

Chapter 05


The research project showed that there are many factors whose are responsible for reducing production and productivity but our emphasis was on one of the most important factor which yielded very important results. We focused on raw material.Breakage is one of the big factors due to which efficiency of department is disturbed.In the production of fabric we should keep many things in mind which can affect the production and productivity. Productivity can be enhanced by restructuring the each process. While producing fabric, quality of raw material or other parameters have their own importance. On the other hand, we should realize that without participation of each individual nothing can be done. So, companies should make the policies which are favorable and helpful to both managers and workers.

Skilled labour, automated machinery, raw material quality and energy issues have an impact on production of fabric. If any company has a grip in these issues then, that company can survive in this competitive market in a better way.

With the growth of production, the company earns more profit and can create more vacant positions for the new jobs to increase or install new machinery. For this they need more investment or capital and new labour will help in increasing the productivity.

 High profit or high investment in every business is the first preference, but in the textile sector the high profit with customer satisfaction is the key issue. Customers should be satisfied by the textile sector in order to retain a long term relationship with them. Customer’s trust must be kept on top priority by each and every company.


  1. Textiles: Fiber to fabric, Sixth edition, Bernard P. Corbman, 1987
  2. Reference Books of Textile Technologies – Weaving by Giovanni Castelli, Salvatore Maietta,  Giuseppe Sigrisi, Ivo Matteo Slaviero.
  3. The italian textile machinery industry, today: characteristics, raw materials, technologies.
  4. Understanding textile for a merchandiser by Engr.ShahAlimuzzamanBelal Ctext.ATI.(U.K.)
  5. Dr. MD.Mahbubul Haque,Head of TE dept. Daffodil International University
  6. Dewan Murshed Ahmed lecturer, Daffodil International University
  7. WordNet 2003,