Strategic Management

Cumulative Voting

Cumulative Voting

In contrast to straight voting, cumulative voting (also known as accumulation voting, weighted voting, or multi-voting) combats the control of a majority shareholder. It’s a multiple-winner cardinal voting system that aims to give greater proportional representation to voters than winner-take-all elections. In most cases, each shareholder has one vote per share multiplied by the number of directors who must be chosen. A shareholder’s total number of votes in cumulative voting is equal to the number of shares multiplied by the number of director seats.

Cumulative voting is utilized as often as possible to incorporate administration, where it is commanded by some U.S. states. The investor can project these votes for one chief position or spread them out. This is an interaction some of the time known as proportional voting. Individual investors benefit from cumulative voting because they can apply all of their votes to one candidate. Allowing a shareholder to concentrate his or her voting power almost always means that the shareholder will be able to elect or have a major influence over that one director.

In total cumulative voting, every investor is qualified for one vote for each offer, duplicated by the quantity of accessible chief situations, with the votes being appropriated in whatever extent the investor likes. It was used to elect the Illinois House of Representatives from 1870 until its repeal in 1980, and it was also used to elect several school boards in England in the late 1800s. A shareholder can cast all of his or her votes for a single candidate through cumulative voting.

Example of cumulative voting

Albeit the democratic technique gives minority investors more political decision power, it’s anything but a generally utilized democratic framework among S&P 500 organizations. It is not difficult to perceive how the present circumstance can support minority investor rights to board portrayal. While this may appear to be a simple task at first look, preparing for cumulative voting, which assures that a minority shareholder may elect a board member, is more complicated. In most cases, each shareholder has one vote per share, multiplied by the number of directors to be chosen.

More than fifty towns in the United States use cumulative voting as of March 2012, all as a consequence of litigation made under the 1965 National Voting Rights Act. Half of the city council in Peoria, Illinois, the county council and school board in Chilton County, Alabama, and the school board and College Board of Regents in Amarillo, Texas, are among them. Hewlett-Packard (HPE) is one example of a firm that has previously employed cumulative voting.

Hewlett-Packard, on the other hand, abolished the practice in 2016, citing the fact that “cumulative voting is incompatible, and fundamentally at odds, with a majority vote standard for electing directors because it allows relatively small stockholders to elect directors who are not supported by a majority of the company’s shareholder base.” Cumulative voting is a voting framework utilized by associations that permit investors to cast a ballot proportionately to the quantity of offers they hold. This permits an investor with 100 offers to project what could be compared to 100 votes toward any single issue.

Fortunately, there is a basic numerical equation that shows precisely the number of votes an investor will require to choose a chief. A type of cumulative voting has been utilized by bunch facilitators as a strategy to on the whole focus on choices, for instance, thoughts produced from a meeting to generate new ideas inside a studio. Assume that several individuals are being considered for a variety of jobs, such as board positions. This computation holds true, however, in the case of common stock with one vote per share.

The formula is: (S × X) / (D+1)


S = the number of shares voting in the election (i.e., the total number of votes)

X = number of directors you want to elect

D= number of directors up for election

A total democratic political decision grants electors in a political decision for more than one seat to put more than one decision on a favored competitor. At the point when citizens in the minority amass their votes thusly, it builds their odds of acquiring portrayal in an administrative body. A corporation usually uses one of two voting systems when it comes to shareholder voting: cumulative voting or straight voting. Minority shareholders benefit from cumulative voting because it enhances their capacity to elect a director.

Rather than straight democratic, investors are permitted to project each of their decisions in favor of a solitary up-and-comer under cumulative voting. On the off chance that different minority investors center a solitary way together, they regularly have the ability to impact a change or arrangement their ideal way. Voters are unable to express a different degree of support for a more favored candidate, limiting their options but tactically making it simpler to support a slate of candidates.

If an organization prefers not to use cumulative voting, it can use statutory voting instead. Shareholders receive some votes according to the amount of shares they own in these situations, but they must cast their votes on all positions or issues under discussion. Under cumulative voting, a minority shareholder can cast all 100 of his votes for a single candidate, therefore assisting in the election of that candidate.

Information Sources:

  4. wikipedia